Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Blood and steel! :the history, customs, and traditions of the [Third Armored Cavalry Regiment]."

See other formats


D 101. 2:H 62/13 



BLOOD Am STEEL! 

THE HISTORY, CUSTOMS, AND 
TRADITIONS OF THE 


Published by the Third Cavalry Museum 

Fort Hood, Texas 
2008 Edition 







Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2016 


https://archive.org/details/bloodsteelthehisOOthir 


FORWARD 


The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment has a long, proud history. For more than 160 years, the 
Brave Rifles have served on the frontiers of freedom, defending the national interests of the 
United States. The Regiment is now the last heavy cavalry regiment in the Army. 

People may serve with a unit and then move on, but the history, customs and traditions of 
that unit remain in place to form a legacy that is passed on from one generation of its Soldiers to 
the next. These customs and traditions define that unit. Due to its origin as the Regiment of 
Mounted Riflemen, the only regiment of mounted riflemen, this Regiment has a unique place in 
the history of the U.S. Army. Over the years many customs and traditions have evolved, some 
of which may also be found in other cavalry units. Many of them, however, are unique to this 
Regiment. 

This publication has been prepared to familiarize you, the Trooper, with the history, cus- 
toms, and traditions of the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment. As a member of the Regiment, you 
will be required to know and use them. If you appear in front of a promotion or other type of 
board, you will be asked questions about the history of your unit. You may take an active part 
in them, such as The Order of the Spur or at Regimental functions, or you might contribute to 
the adoption of new customs or traditions. They will become part of your life in this Regiment. 
You will also write part of its new history. 

You can see the objects that embody the history of the Regiment at the Third Cavalry Mu- 
seum. It is your museum. You are encouraged to visit, with your family or friends, and see this 
legacy. It will help you to understand the Regiment’s place in the history of this country. 

As you serve in the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment, you will help to keep the history, cus- 
toms, and traditions of the Regiment alive. Never forget what they represent — the service and 
sacrifices of your predecessors. 


The Staff of the Third Cavalry Museum 



1 



INTRODUCTION 


For overl60 years, the nation has called upon the service of the Regiment of Mounted Rifle- 
men to explore unknown lands, defend national borders, and combat the enemies of freedom. 
The Third Cavalry has distinguished itself as the most respected and reliable Cavalry unit in the 
Army. Since 1846, its history has been marked by unequaled pride and courage. The 3d Ar- 
mored Cavalry Regiment’s renowned commitment to civic and military values, its patriotism, 
discipline, readiness, self-sacrifice, decisiveness, and generosity in victory, remains strong to- 
day. The Third U.S. Cavalry has performed with distinction during peacetime training and un- 
der the toughest conditions of combat. 

Troopers of the Third U.S. Cavalry have gone into action during ten major conflicts: the 
Indian Wars, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish- American War, the Philippine Insur- 
rection, World War I, World War II, the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Bosnia, and Operation Iraqi 
Freedom. The Regiment earned fourty campaign streamers during these conflicts as well as a 
Presidential Unit Citation, and twenty-three of the Regiment’s Troopers received the Medal of 
Honor. Your predecessors won lopsided victories against numerically superior forces during the 
Mexican War, routed Confederate forces at the battles of Val Verde and Glorieta Pass during 
the Civil War, defeated the enemy in the largest battle of the Indian Wars, quelled an Apache 
uprising, seized San Juan Hill in Cuba during the Spanish American War, conducted counter- 
insurgency operations in the Philippines, led General Patton’s Third Army across Europe during 
World War II, fought with distinction as the reconnaissance force for XVIII Airborne Corps 
during Operation Desert Storm enforced peace in Bosnia, and, most recently, conducted ex- 
tremely effective counter-insurgency operations over one-third of the land mass of Iraq during 
Operation Iraqi Freedom. 

We are in a long war against Terrorism and the leaders and Troopers of the Third Cavalry 
remain fully engaged and committed to fighting and winning the Global War on Terrorism to 
preserve the freedom we cherish. The Regiment, because of its unique capabilities and its dis- 
tinguished record, will continue to receive challenging missions. You have joined an elite or- 
ganization and are now part of the history of the Regiment. Learn the customs and traditions of 
this great Regiment and of the U.S. Cavalry and together we will preserve the legacy we have 
inherited. 


BRAVE RIFLES! 

U 



MICHAEL A. BILLS 
72nd Colonel 












































































































































































































TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PART I: THE STORY OF THE REGIMENT OF MOUNTED RIFLEMEN 1 

The Mexican War 2 

On to Oregon 6 

The Civil War 7 

Back to the Frontier 1 1 

Fiddler’s Green 13 

The Spanish American War 14 

Old Bill 15 

Phillipine Insurrection 16 

World War 1 17 

Between the Wars 18 

World War II 19 

The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment 22 

Operation Gyroscope 23 

Seventh Army 24 

Fort Lewis, Washington 25 

Return to Fort Bliss, Texas 26 

The Persian Gulf War 28 

Fort Carson, Colorado 29 

Bosnia 30 

Bright Star 33 

Operation Iraqi Freedom 1 34 

Operation Iraqi Freedom 04-06 43 

Fort Hood, Texas 53 

PART II: REGIMENTAL CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS 57 

Regimental Insignia 58 

Other Customs and Traditions 61 

Appendix A The Act of Congress Establishing the Regiment 69 

Appendix B Certificates of Lineage and Honors 71 

Appendix C Campaign Participation Credits 73 

Appendix D Regimental Medal of Honor Recipients 79 

Appendix E Regimental Commanders 83 

Appendix F Regimental Command Sergeants Major 87 

Appendix G General Scott’s Remarks to the Regiment at Contreras 89 

Appendix H Task Force Rifles Attachments 91 

Appendix I Operation Iraqi Freedom I Casualties 93 

Appendix J Operation Iraqi Freedom 04-06 Attachments 95 

Appendix K Operation Iraqi Freedom 04-06 Casualties 97 

Appendix L Organization of the Regiment 99 


v 
































. 










































































































PART 1: THE STORY OF THE REGIMENT OF MOUNTED RIFLEMEN 


The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was authorized by an Act of Congress on 19 May 
1845. This brought into existence a new organization in the United States Army: a regiment of 
riflemen, mounted to create greater mobility than the infantry, and equipped with Model 1841 
percussion rifles to provide greater range and accuracy than the muskets of the infantry or the 
dragoon's smooth bore carbines. 

From the beginning, the Mounted Rifles were considered a separate branch of the service. 
This is reflected by the distinctive uniforms, weapons, and equipment that were issued when the 
Regiment was organized. 

Companies C and F were recruited in the mountain regions of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, and North Carolina while the rest came from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Ten- 
nessee. Company I was not formed until October, at New Orleans, because is commanding offi- 
cer, Captain Charles F. Ruff, was on detached service. 



Corporal, Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, ca.1846, courtesy of Randy Steffen/University of 
Oklahoma Press. 


1 


The Mexican War 

The Regiment was organized "for establishing military stations on route to Oregon", and it 
was under orders to proceed on its mission at the earliest practical date. However, the Mexican 
War intervened and the troopers found themselves diverted to participate in the invasion of 
Mexico. As soon as horses and equipment were obtained, the Regiment began moving to New 
Orleans in detachments of one or two companies. 

The Mounted Rifles lost most of their horses in a terrible storm during the voyage across the 
Gulf of Mexico, forcing them to fight as infantry during most of the Mexican War. This kept 
the Regiment from being left behind to escort wagon trains and chase guerrillas, allowing it to 
distinguished itself in six campaigns. 

They landed at Vera Cruz on 9 March 1847 and participated in the fighting there until 28 
March. On 17 and 18 April, the Regiment found itself in fierce hand-to-hand combat at Cerro 
Gordo. After refitting at Puebla, the Riflemen fought at Contreras and Churubusco on 19 and 
20 August. It was at Contreras that General Scott made the speech from which the Regiment 
took its Accolade (see Appendix G for details). 





“Brave Rifles-Veterans ” by Don Prechtel 


2 


On 8 September as the advance to Mexico city continued. General Scott learned that a large 
quantity of gun powder was stored at Molino del Rey (the “Kings Mill”), which formed the 
western end of the park that included Chapultepec, about 1 000 yards to the east. Church bells 
were reportedly being melted down and cast into cannons there, too. Scott ordered the facility 
seized. 

Major Edwin V. Sumner and 270 Riflemen were tasked with screening the left flank of the 
assault on the Molino. Beyond a massive stone structure known as the “Casa Mata”, 500 yards 
further west, 4000 Mexican cavalrymen waited to roll up the flank of the attacking Americans. 
Charging under heavy fire, the Mounted Rifles crossed a deep ravine considered impassible by 
the Mexicans, attacked and defeated the vastly superior force. 



Chapultepec 

The most notable action during the Regiment's participation in the Mexican War came on 13 
September 1 847 when the Regiment participated in the assault on the fortress of Chapultepec. 
The site of the Mexican National Military Academy, it is described in Steele's American 
Campaigns: 

This stone castle stands on an isolated mound rising 150 feet above the val- 
ley; nearly precipitous on the northern, eastern, and part of the southern side, 
it declines gradually on the east to a cypress grove separating it from Molino 
del Rey. The grounds were enclosed by a high wall on the southern side and 
on the northern side by the San Cosme Aqueduct. The castle commanded 
two of the causeways leading into the City of Mexico, about two miles east of 
it. The position was defended with cannon. 


3 


Chapultepec Castle was taken by a pair of hand-picked, 250-man storming parties, which 
included Mounted Riflemen under the command of Captain Benjamin S. Roberts, who would 
later command Company C. Seeing a party of Marines falter during the assault after losing 
most of their officers. Lieutenant Robert M. Morris of the Mounted Rifles took charge and led 
them on to victory. During the assault, other elements of the Regiment captured an enemy 
artillery battery at the foot of the castle. 

After these actions, the Regiment was immediately reformed and advanced down the 
Tacubaya Causeway to storm the Belen Gate which barred the way into Mexico City. The 
hard-fighting Riflemen captured another artillery battery halfway to the gate at Casa Colorado, 
and a third during the assault on the gate. 

Leading the American forces, the Regiment stormed into Mexico City at 1:20 that 
afternoon. At 7:00 A.M. on 14 September 1847, Sergeant James Manly of F Company and 
Captain Benjamin S. Roberts raised the American Flag over the Mexican National Palace while 
Captain Porter, Commander of F Company, unfurled the Regimental standard from the 
balcony. 



The storming of Chapultepec Castle. 


As recalled by Major General John A. Quitman, “When forming my division on the plaza, I 
perceived several noncommissioned officers hastening towards the palace with their regimental 
colors. I cried out, ‘No, my brave fellows, take back your colors. The first flag on that palace 
must be the flag of our country.’ Captain Roberts, of the Rifles, was then directed to bring for- 
ward a stand of National Colors and plant them upon the palace.” 


4 


Most of the remainder of the Regiment’s service in Mexico would consist of police duty and 
chasing guerrillas. There were, however, engagements with Mexican forces at Matamoras on 23 
and Galaxara on 24 November, 1847 and at Santa Fe on 4 January 1848. 

As a result of their reputation for bravery and toughness, the Mounted Rifles were usually 
found in the midst of the action. As General Scott said, “Where bloody work was to be done, 
‘the Rifles’ was the cry, and there they were. All speak of them in terms of praise and admira- 
tion.” 

During the Mexican War, eleven Troopers were commissioned from the ranks and nineteen 
officers received brevet promotions for gallantry in action. Regimental losses in Mexico were 
approximately four officers and fourty men killed. Thirteen officers and 180 wounded (many of 
whom would eventually die), and one officer and 180 men who died of other causes. 

The Mounted Rifles departed from Vera Cruz on the ship Tyrone on 7 July 1848. They ar- 
rived at New Orleans on the 17th and sailed up the Mississippi River on the same day aboard 
the Aleck Scott. 



Mounted Rifleman in distinctive uniform, 
with Grimsley saddle, ca. 1847. Painting 
courtesy of Randy Steffen/University of 
Oklahoma Press. 


5 


On to Oregon 

After the Mounted Rifles returned from Mexico to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, they began 
to prepare for a 2,000 mile march through territory without roads and often without water, fire- 
wood, or grass for their animals. The Regiment departed Jefferson Barracks under the com- 
mand of LTC William Wing Loring on 10 May 1849 with 700 horses, 1,200 mules, a few oxen, 
and 1 7 1 wagons. There were few buildings on this route other than Fort Kearny, Nebraska and 
fur trading posts at Laramie and old Fort Hall. Surveying routes while guarding against hostile 
Indians and dealing with the problems of supply, swollen rivers, and disease made for a gruel- 
ing mission. 

The Army bought the fur trading post at Laramie, leaving Companies C and E to garrison 
the post. Companies B and F were left to garrison Fort Hall on the Snake River. The main body 
of the Mounted Rifles arrived at Oregon City in November 1849. 

In May 1851, The Mounted Rifles were ordered to return to Jefferson Barracks. All the 
horses and Troopers were transferred to the 1st Dragoons in California, and the officers and 
NCOs traveled by ship to Panama. After crossing the Isthmus, they boarded another ship and 
returned to the Regiment's birthplace, arriving on 16 July 1851. For the next six months, the 
Regiment recruited, re-equipped, and re-trained. 

First Regiment of Mounted Riflemen 

In December 1851 the Regiment was ordered to Texas. By January 1852, the Regiment ar- 
rived at Fort Merrill, where for the next four years it operated against the Indian tribes living in 
the area. Patrols, skirmishes, guard, and escort duty were all part of the daily routine. Captain 
Dabney H. Maury of Company H, posted at Ft. Inge, Texas, remembered, “These Indians had 
their resting places at Fort Worth. . . near where the Second Dragoons were stationed, and they 



The Walker Colt (U.S. Model 1847) .44 caliber revolver with powder flask and bullet mold. 
This pistol was co-designed by Samuel Colt and Captain Samuel Walker, commander of 
Company C, who was killed in action in the Mexican War. The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen 
was the only unit in the U.S. Army issued this weapon. Courtesy of Randy Steffen/University of 
Oklahoma Press. 


6 


always kept the peace with them. Evidently they regarded us as a separate tribe, for whenever 
they were about to make a raid down our way, they would tell the Dragoons that they had ‘war 
with the Rifles’ and gravely bid them ‘Good by.’ ” 

In 1853, the Regiment was redesignated as the First Regiment of Mounted Riflemen 
because the Army was considering raising another mounted rifle regiment. This did not 
happen, but the “First” designation of the original regiment was kept. Jeb Stuart, later to gain 
fame as a Confederate cavalry commander, served with the Regiment as a lieutenant during this 
period. 

In 1856, Indian troubles in the New Mexico Territory required additional troops and the 
Regiment moved further West. In 1857, Fort Bliss, Texas became the new home base for the 
Mounted Rifles. Service in New Mexico was constant and most exacting. The Regiment was 
widely scattered and the number of troops available was wholly inadequate for the task of 
patrolling an area that extended from Denver, Colorado to the Mexican border, and from West 
Texas to Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. 

The Civil War 

In April 1861, the American Civil War began and the Regimental Commander, Colonel 
William Wing Coring and twelve other officers left the Regiment to join the cause of the Con- 
federacy. In August 1861, the mounted arm of the U.S. Army was reorganized, and the First 
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was redesignated as the 3d United States Cavalry Regiment. 

At the outbreak of the war, a Confederate force of about 3000 Texans began a campaign at 
Fort Bliss, Texas to seize the territories of New Mexico and Colorado. The 3d U.S. Cavalry 
Regiment was one of the few Regular Army units in the region available to oppose them. On 
25 July detachments of Companies B and F were involved in a hard fight at Mesilla and joined 
Company I when it surrendered with Fort Fillmore on 26 July. 



The trumpet pictured above was the branch of service insignia of the 1st Regiment of 
Mounted Riflemen until it was redesignated as the 3d United States Cavalry Regiment 
in 1861. Courtesy of Randy Steffen/University of Oklahoma Press. 


7 



8 


Two officers and eighty-eight men of these companies were taken into captivity and then pa- 
roled. The Regiment dwindled down to the point that Companies A, B, and H had their Troop- 
ers transferred to other companies in August, leaving the Regiment no larger than a battalion. 

Companies C, G, and K defeated a rebel force at Fort Thom on 26 September. On 21 Febru- 
ary 1862, Companies C, D, G, I, and K under the command of Major Thomas Duncan and a 
provisional artillery battery commanded by Captain Alexander McCrae, formerly commander 
of Company E, were part of the Union force that fought the Confederates at the Battle of Val 
Verde. This was the largest Civil War land battle west of the Mississippi River. The battle oc- 
curred at an important ford across the Rio Grande river just north Fort Craig, New Mexico. Un- 
ion forces under Colonel Edward R. S. Canby held Fort Union, which barred the route north. 



Captain Alexander McRae 


The Confederate commander, General Flenry Hopkins Sibley, moved around them to the 
ford to draw the Union troops away from the fort since Sibley knew he wasn’t strong enough to 
take it by force. Sibley could not leave this enemy force in his rear as he moved north, but he 
also needed to capture the food and supplies stored there to support his campaign. Capturing the 
ford would cut the post off from support by Union forces stationed further north. 

Canby moved his command about 5 miles north to the ford to prevent the Confederates 
from seizing it. In the ensuing battle, McRae’s battery raked the enemy positions with shell and 


9 


canister as well as highly effective counter-battery fire that put a number of the Confederate 
guns out of action. He was ordered to move his battery across the Rio Grande to the eastern side 
to cover the Union attempt to roll up the Confederate’s left flank. 

With their line in danger of being outflanked by Union forces, the commander of one of the 
Texas units ordered a charge to attempt to capture or destroy McRae’s battery. The Texans 
stormed out of a dry wash about 700 yards away, with some 750 men in three waves. Part of 
the battery’s supporting infantry had been moved to another area on the battlefield and the re- 
mainder, untested volunteers, fled as the enemy closed on their position, leaving it unprotected. 
McRae’s gunners continued firing into the Confederate ranks, inflicting heavy casualties. One 
by one, the gun crews were cut down but McRae refused to retreat. The surviving gunners and 
infantrymen were now engaged in a furious hand-to-hand fight with pistols, clubbed muskets, 
bayonets, and knives. When the battery was overrun, Canby ordered a withdrawal, leaving the 
battlefield to the enemy. 

Eighty percent of the Union casualties at Val Verde occurred either in or near the McRae’s 
position. Of the eighty-five men in the battery, nineteen (including McRae) were killed, 
twenty-three wounded, and two missing in action. 

The 23 March 1862 edition of the St. Louis Republican stated "With his artillerymen cut 
down, his support either killed, wounded or flying from the field, Capt. McRae sat down calmly 
on one of his guns, and with revolver in hand, refusing to flee or desert his post, he fought to the 
last." 

McRae was a native of North Carolina who was ostracized by his own family for remaining 
loyal to the Union cause. His belief in the oath to “preserve, protect, and defend the Constitu- 
tion” was absolute. He died defending his position in the face of overwhelming odds, adding to 
the Regiment’s tradition of selfless service to the nation. 

In his official report, Colonel Canby, commander of the Department of New Mexico, said of 
McRae, “Pure in character, upright in conduct, devoted to his profession ... Captain McRae 
died, as he had lived, an example of the best and highest qualities that man can possess.” 

McRae was buried at Fort Craig until 1 867 when his remains were moved to the cemetery at 
West Point. Alexander McRae was one of only two officers of the Regiment killed in action in 
the Civil War. A new post south of Fort Craig was named Fort McRae in his honor as was a 
street in El Paso, Texas. 

After the fight at Val Verde, Companies C and K fought an engagement on 3 March with 
Indians at Comanche Canyon while Company E was involved in the evacuation of Albuquerque 
and Santa Fe, on 2 through 4 March. Company C was again engaged at Apache Canyon on 26 
March. 

Company E fought at the battle of Glorieta Pass (also known as the Battle of Pigeon Ranch) 
on 28 March and at Albuquerque again on 9 April. In the Glorieta Pass fight, a force of Colo- 
rado volunteers destroyed the Confederate supply train which left them in unfamiliar, un- 
friendly territory without food, water, or other supplies, ending the threat of Confederate Con- 
trol of the territories of New Mexico and Colorado. 

Company E was also involved in the pursuit of Confederate forces from 13 to 22 April. At 
Peralta on 1 5 April, Companies D, E, G, I, and K were involved in the final action of the cam- 
paign against the remnants of the Confederate force who were straggling back to Texas. 

The Regiment departed from Fort Union on 30 September and marched 1280 miles to Jef- 
ferson Barracks, Missouri, arriving on 23 November. In December 1862, the Regiment moved 
to Memphis, Tennessee, where it remained until October 1863. 


10 


Between October and December 1863, the 3d Cavalry participated in operations on the 
Memphis and Charleston Railroad and fought in skirmishes at various locations such as Barton 
Station, Cane Creek, and Dickinson’s Station, Alabama. 

The 3d Cavalry was tasked by General Sherman to perform various reconnaissance mis- 
sions as part of his advance guard, including marching to the relief of Knoxville, Tennessee. 
Elements of the Regiment also were engaged at Murphy, North Carolina and Loudon, Tennes- 
see. 

From May 1864 until April 1866, the 3d Cavalry was stationed at Little Rock, Arkansas, 
with the mission of "preventing the organization of enemy commands, capturing guerrilla bands 
and escorting trains." To accomplish these tasks, the Regiment did much hard riding over a 
large area. During an expedition from Little Rock to Benton on 21 August 1 864, a detachment 
of the 3d Cavalry was ambushed by Confederate troops. The resulting confusion and effort to 
escape the kill zone became known as “The Benton Races.” 

The 3d U.S. Cavalry Regiment’s losses during the Civil War were two officers and thirty 
enlisted men who were either killed in action or died of wounds and three officers and 105 
enlisted men who died of disease or other non-combat causes. 

Back to the Frontier 

In April 1866, Companies A, D, E, H, L, and M were ordered to Carlisle Barracks, Pennsyl- 
vania and brought up to strength. The 3d Cavalry was once again ordered to the New Mexico 
territory to campaign against the Indians. Company E, traveling on the Arkansas River, suf- 
fered thirteen Troopers killed, nine injured, and twelve missing when the boilers exploded on 
the steamboat Miami on 28 January 1866. 



In April 1870, the Regiment was ordered to Arizona for operations against the Apaches and, 
in late 1871, was transferred north to the Department of the Platte, which included what are 
now the states of Wyoming, Montana, the Dakotas and Nebraska. The 3d Cavalry became the 
main cavalry force for Department operations in the Black Hills region. 

During the summer of 1876, the Regiment participated in the Little Big Horn Campaign 
against the Sioux and Cheyenne. On 17 June 1876, ten companies of the 3d Cavalry fought in 
the Battle of Rosebud Creek. 


11 



Barrack room of K Troop, 3d Cavalry at Fort Elliott, Texas, 1885. Sergeant Perley S. Eaton is 
seated at left on the footlocker and Private John Hubbard stands at right with arms folded. 


This was the largest battle between the Army and the Indians in the history of the American 
West, with 1,400 friendly Indians and soldiers opposing more than 1,500 hostile Indians. 

The record of the battle shows that "three battalions of the 3d Cavalry under Captains Mills, 
Henry and Van Vliet, performed gallant, heroic, and outstanding service.” Henry was shot in 
the face, losing an eye, but survived to become our 12th Colonel. Four 3d Cavalry Troopers 
received the Medal of Honor for bravery in this battle: Trumpeter Elmer A. Snow of Company 
M and First Sergeants Joseph Robinson of Company D, Michael A. McGann of Company F, 
and John H. Shingle of Company I. 

With the Apache uprising in the spring of 1882, the Regiment was ordered to return to Ari- 
zona, and on July 17th, the 3d and 6th Cavalry Regiments defeated renegade Apaches in the 
Battle of Big Dry Wash. This battle quelled the last Apache uprising in Arizona and also 
marked the end of the Regiment’s participation in the Indian Wars. This action resulted in the 
award of two more Medals of Honor, to First Sergeant Charles Taylor of Company D and Lieu- 
tenant George H. Morgan of Company K. 

The year 1883 would see the term “company” changed to “troop” in the mounted service 
and in 1885 the red and white guidon replaced the 1863 stars and stripes pattern adopted at the 
beginning of the Civil War. 

In 1885, the 3d U.S. Cavalry was ordered back to Texas, where it remained until 1893. Be- 
tween 1893 and 1897, the Regiment was engaged in garrison, training and ceremonial activities 
throughout the East and Mid-West. By July 1897, the Regimental Headquarters and four troops 
were stationed at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont, while the remainder of the Regiment returned to 
Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. 


12 



Fiddler’s Green 

The experiences of a typical Indian Wars period Trooper are perhaps best summed up by 
the poem, Fiddler’s Green. Although the poem’s origin is uncertain, Fiddler’s Green is de- 
scribed as a broad meadow located halfway down the trail to Hell, dotted with trees and 
crossed by many streams. Traditionally, this is the place where dead Troopers camp, with 
their tents, horses, picket lines, campfires and the old army canteen. The souls of the dead 
Troopers gather there to exchange reminiscences and tell stories. 


Fiddler’s Green 

Halfway down the trail to hell, 

In a shady meadow green, 

Are the souls of all dead troopers camped 
Near a good old time canteen, 

And this resting place is known as Fiddler ’s Green. 

Marching past straight through to Hell, 

The Infantry are seen, 

Accompanied by the Engineers, 

Artillery and Marine, 

For none but the shades o f Cavalrymen 
Dismount at Fiddler ’s Green. 

Though some go curving down the trail 
To seek a warmer scene, 

No trooper ever gets to Hell 
Ere he ’s emptied his canteen, 

And so rides back to drink again 
With friends at Fiddler ’s Green 

And so when man and horse go down 
Beneath a saber keen, 

Or in a roaring charge of fierce melee 
You stop a bullet clean, 

And the hostiles come to get your scalp, 

Just empty your canteen, 

And put your pistol to your head 
And go to Fiddler ’s Green. 


13 


The Spanish-American War 

In April 1898, the Regiment was assembled at Camp Thomas, Georgia in Chickamauga Na- 
tional Park and assigned to a brigade in a provisional cavalry division. 

On 13 May 1898, the Regiment arrived in Tampa, Florida. On 8 June, the Regiment, minus 
four troops, embarked, dismounted, on the transport Rio Grande for Cuba. These troops were 
commanded by Major Henry W. Wessels, Jr., while Major Henry Jackson commanded 2nd 
Squadron (Troops C, E, F, and G) and Captain Charles Morton commanded 3rd Squadron 
(Troops B, H, I, and K). Troops A, D, L, and M were left in camp in Tampa to care for animals 
and Regimental property, and to instruct recruits. The Regiment landed at Daiquiri, Cuba. 

One of the Army’s objectives was to seize the Cuban positions on the high ground around 
the landward side of the city of Santiago, a Cuban seaport. This would force the Spanish 
warships in the harbor to sail out to face the U.S. Navy. The cavalry division, of which the 
Regiment was a part, was one of three divisions assigned the mission of assaulting these hills, 
known as the San Juan Heights. The 3d Cavalry was one of five regular U.S. Cavalry Regi- 
ments engaged there. 

Three troops of 3rd Squadron crossed over Kettle Hill and on to the Spanish positions 
around what was known as the San Juan House. Troop B advanced to the enemy’s line at the 
San Juan Blockhouse (different from the San Juan House) where the Regiment’s U.S. Flag, car- 
ried by Sergeant Bartholomew Mulhem of Troop E, was the first to be raised at the point of vic- 
tory. 2nd Squadron, held in reserve on Kettle Hill, joined the 3rd Squadron on San Juan Hill 
that evening. The Regiment stayed in Cuba until 6 August when Troops B, G, H, and I sailed 
for Montauk Point, New York. On the 7th, Troops C, E, F, and K followed. 

The 3d Cavalry’s casualties were three Troopers killed, six officers and forty-six Troopers 
wounded. 1LT John W. Heard, Regimental Quartermaster, was awarded a Medal of Honor for 
most distinguished gallantry in action and Certificates of Merit were awarded to five Troopers. 
These certificates were the forerunner of the Silver Star Medal. 


Headquarters 1st Cavalry Brigade, 

Camp Hamilton , Cuba, July 29, 1898. - 

The Adjutant General . U. 8. A., 

Washington, l). C., 

Sir : — 

I have the honor to recommend that a certificate of 
merit be granted to Sergeant Bartholomew Mulhem, 
Troop E, 3rd Cavalry, Color Bearer for the Regiment, 
for distinguished gallantry m action in the battle before 
Santiago de Cuba, July 1, 1898. 

Seigeant Mulhem kept with the firing-line of the 
regiment, bearing the colors most conspicuously , and 
drawing heavy fire of the enemy, and was first to plant 
the American colors on the first hill, on which is located 
the San Juan house. 

Very respectfully, 

Robert L. Howze . 

Asst. Adjutant General, U.S. V. 


14 



The Regiment was joined at Montauk Point by the four troops which had remained behind. 
In early September the entire Regiment left Montauk Point for its new duty station at Fort Ethan 
Allen, Vermont. 

The 3d Cavalry did not remain together for very long. In February and March of 1 899, two 
troops were assigned to Fort Sheridan, Illinois, two troops to Jefferson barracks, four troops and 
the band to Fort Myer, Virginia, while the remainder of the Regiment stayed at Fort Ethan Al- 
len. 

Old Bill 

In 1898, The American artist Frederick Remington was visiting the camp of the 3d U.S. 
Cavalry in Tampa, Florida, where the Regiment was preparing for the invasion of Cuba during 
the Spanish-American War. 

Remington was a close friend of Captain Francis Hardie, who was the commander of Troop 
G. During his visit. Remington’s attention was drawn to one of the troop’s NCOs. Sergeant 
John Lannen struck the artist as the epitome of the cavalryman, and with Hardie’s approval, he 
made several rough sketches of Lannen in front of Hardie’s tent. From those rought sketches 
Remington later executed the now famous drawing portraying a trooper astride his mount with 
a carbine cradled in his arm, depicted below. 

At some point in the past this drawing became know as “Old Bill,” and today it is univer- 
sally recognized as the symbol of mobile warfare in the United States Army. This drawing 
represents a Trooper, a unit, and a branch of service. 

As was the case with many American Soldiers in that conflict, Lannen contracted yellow 
fever and died in Santiago in 1898 after almost 30 years of faithful service. The 3d Armored 
Cavalry Regiment points with pride to the fact that one of its Troopers has bequeathed such a 
rich legacy to his regiment, the United States Cavalry, and the United States Army. 



The Philippine Insurrection 

When the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish- American War, 400 years of Spanish 
rule in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands came to an end. The United States, 
as a new world power, saw the Philippines as the perfect location for a naval facility to support 
a new Pacific fleet. 3d Cavalry units had barely arrived at their new duty stations in the U.S. 
when, on 22 July 1 899, the headquarters and Troops A, C, D, E, F, K, L, and M were ordered to 
Seattle, Washington. From Seattle, this force embarked for the Philippine Islands to operate 
against the insurgents who were trying to prevent the United States from taking control. Mean- 
while, Troops B, G, H, and I were ordered to assemble at Fort Myer. 

The deploying troops landed in Manila in October 1899, with the remaining four troops fol- 
lowing from Fort Myer in 1900. The 3d Cavalry remained on the island of Luzon until 1902, 
fighting sixty-two engagements during that time. The fighting was often fierce with no quarter 
asked and none given. This would be the first time the U.S. Army would fight in a jungle envi- 
ronment, and the first time it would fight a counter-insurgency, but it would not be the last. 

The Regiment returned to the United States in detachments between April and November 
1902. The headquarters, band, and Troops A, D, I, K, L, and M were stationed in Montana, 
Troops B and C in Wyoming, Troops G and H in Arizona, Troop E in Idaho and Troop F in 
North Dakota. 



3 cl Cavalry Troopers drill on Luzon during the Philippine Insurrection, ca. 1900. 


16 



Troop H, 3d Cavalry, taken in France on 15 November 1918, after the end of the World War I. 

17 


The 3d Cavalry Regiment remained in the United States until December 1905, when it was 
again ordered to the Philippines for peacetime occupation duty. It remained there until 1908, 
when it was ordered home and stationed in Texas. The following nine years were spent in garri- 
son and patrolling the Mexican border. 

World War I 

On 17 March 1917 the entire Regiment was transferred to Fort Sam Houston, Texas. In 
April, the United States entered the Great War, and in August the Regiment became of the first 
units deployed overseas. Arriving in France in November, the Regiment operated three major 
remount depots until the war’s end. 

The three squadrons were charged with the purchase of horses, mules and forage, the care, 
conditioning, and training of remounts before issue, and the distribution and issue of remounts 
to the American Expeditionary Force. After the armistice, the Regiment was tasked with help- 
ing to sell the remaining animals to French civilians. The sale of 345,580 animals recovered 
over $52,000,000 for the Army. When they had finished in June 1919, they assembled in Brest, 
France and sailed home, arriving on July 4. 

The only unit of the 3d Cavalry that saw actual combat was Troop K. This troop was part 
of the III Army Corps and served on the Vesle Front, August 7 to 17, and participated in Oise- 
Aisne operation, August 1 8 to September 9, and the Meuse- Argonne Operation from September 
14 to November 11, 1918. 

Troop K also served as part of the Army of Occupation. The occupation forces’ first order 
of business was to continue training and to be prepared to implement a contingency plan in case 
Germany refused to sign the armistice or hostilities were resumed. Troop K participated in the 
March to the Rhine and served in the American Sector of the Army of Occupation from 15 No- 
vember 1918 to 1 July 1919, when it prepared to sail home. 


Between the World Wars 

The Regiment sailed home to Boston in 1919 and the Headquarters and 1st Squadron 
moved to Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont. The 3rd Squadron was stationed at Fort Myer, Virginia. 
During the decades after World War I, the Regiment underwent a series of organizational 
changes. 2nd Squadron plus Troops C and D were inactivated. 3rd Squadron was redesignated 
as the 2nd Squadron. 

Because of its proximity to Washington and Arlington National Cemetery, 2nd Squadron 
was frequently called upon to furnish honor guards and escorts for distinguished visitors and 
funeral escorts for distinguished civilian officials and military personnel. It became known as 
the “President’s Own” because of these duties. On 11 November 1921, the 3d Cavalry fur- 
nished the cavalry escort for the interment of the Unknown Soldier from World War I in Ar- 
lington National Cemetery. Staff Sergeant Frank Witchey, Regimental Bugler, sounded taps at 
the ceremony. SSG Witchey’s bugle and tabard are displayed in the Regimental Museum. Until 
1941, the Regiment provided the Honor Guard detail at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. 

During this period, the Regiment became well known throughout the east for the magnifi- 
cent horse shows and other riding events it either participated in or sponsored. The 3d Cavalry 
won many ribbons and trophies at these events, while the trick riding team became famous for 
its outstanding displays of horsemanship. 

This period in the Regiment’s history also saw the beginnings of mechanization in the Cav- 
alry. Early armored cars and motor transport trucks began to appear at Forts Ethan Allen and 
Myer. The Troopers had to develop the first tactics for their employment while also learning to 
maintain them. 



21 February 1942 — the end of an era. The 3d Cavalry gives up its horses. Head- 
quartered at Fort Myer for over twenty years, the Regiment takes its mounts to a 
train before leaving for Georgia to begin training up for World War II. 


18 


World War II 

With the attack on Pearl Harbor in December of 1941, the United States was thrust into 
World War II. In February, the Regiment was moved to Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia and then to 
Fort Benning, Georgia. At Fort Benning, the Regiment was reorganized and redesignated as the 
3d Armored Regiment and assigned to the 10th Armored division. 

In January 1943, it was reconstituted as the 3d Cavalry Group (Mechanized). The 1st and 
2nd Squadrons were redesignated as the 3rd and 43rd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadrons, re- 
spectively. The 3d Cavalry Group moved to Camp Gordon, Georgia and began training in 
mechanized operations. 

After extensive field maneuvers in the southeastern United States, the 3d Cavalry Group 
arrived in England in June of 1944. On 9 August, it landed in France and became the covering 
force for XX Corps, part of General Patton’s Third U.S. Army. As the spearhead of the XX 
Corps, the Group led the Third Army’s breakout from Normandy. 

The Troopers of the 3d Cavalry Group were the first to reach the Meuse River. They were 
also first to reach the Moselle River and enter the key city of Thionville, France. On 3 Novem- 
ber 1944, the Group received attachments of the 135th Engineer Combat Battalion, a field artil- 
lery battalion, a heavy field artillery battalion, and 2 tank destroyer battalions. As a result of 
these attachments, the Group became known as Task Force Polk, named for the Group Com- 
mander, Colonel James H. Polk. Other units, including the 2nd Ranger Battalion, were attached 
and detached, but at one point the Task Force numbered over 5000 Soldiers even though the 3d 
Cavalry Group originally comprised only about 1 200 men. 



Troopers of the 3d Cavalry Group (Mechanized) conduct a dismounted patrol 
during basic training at Camp Gordon, Georgia. The training lasted from No- 
vember 1943 to March 1944. 


19 



On 17 November 1944, Task Force Polk crossed the Moselle River into Germany. Shortly 
afterward, elements of the 3d Cavalry Group were pressed into service as infantrymen in opera- 
tions to reduce the fortress city of Metz. 

Next came the envelopment of the Siegfried Line and the pursuit to the Rhine River. The 
3d Cavalry crossed the Rhine on 29 March and made a 150 mile, three-day dash to the Bad 
Hersfeld area north of Fulda as resistance started to crumble. In April and early May, with final 
victory in sight, the Third Army, with the 3d Cavalry Group in the lead, turned south and raced 
through upper Austria to link up with the Soviet Army. After hostilities ended, the Group was 
sent through the Alps to Northern Italy to monitor the activities of the various factions that con- 
trolled Yugoslavia when the war ended. When no threat materialized, they moved back to Aus- 
tria. The 3d Cavalry Group (Mecz) was the first military unit to cross the Alps since Hannibal’s 
army did it in 215 B.C. 

While in action, the 3d Cavalry Group (Mecz) ultimately moved 3,000 miles in 265 days, 
117 of those in continuous combat without a rest! The 3d Cavalry also accounted for over 
43,000 enemy troops killed, wounded or captured. 

Shortly after the war in Europe ended, the Troopers of the 3rd and 43rd Squadrons returned 
to the U.S. for a short furlough. The 3rd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron then reported to 
Fort Bragg, North Carolina and the 43rd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron reported to Camp 
Bowie, Texas to begin training for the invasion of Japan. With the use of the atomic bombs 
against Japan, however, their services were no longer required. 

Colonel Polk and the Group Headquarters Troop stayed in Germany to operate a displaced 
persons camp for war refugees. Most of these people were either fleeing the Russian Army or 
had been released from concentration camps. After the camp was turned over to another or- 
ganization, these Troopers also returned home. 


“Task Force Polk Patrols the Saar’’ by Don Stivers 

20 


Patton’s Praise 

At the war’s end, the 3d Cavalry Group, like the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen in Mexico 
City nearly one hundred years earlier, received high praise from the Commanding General. 
General George S. Patton, Jr. commented on the battlefield actions of the 3d Cavalry Group 
with these words: 

“The 3d Cavalry has lived up to the accolade bestowed upon it at Chapultepec 
by General Scott. As horse cavalry you were outstanding; I have never seen a 
better regiment. To your performance as mechanized cavalry, the same applies. 

It is a distinct honor to have commanded an army in which the 3d Cavalry served.” 



General George S. Patton, 28th Colonel, awards the Silver Star Medal to Colonel James H. 
Polk, 32nd Colonel, on May 18, 1945 at Seewalchen, Austria. The occasion was the 99th anni- 
versary of the 3d Cavalry. Polk would eventually become the Commander in Chief of 7th Army 
and USAREUR. He retired in 1971 after more than 40 years of service. After retiring, he said 
“The 3d Cavalry made me a general. ” 


21 



The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment 

Returning from Europe, elements of the 3d Cavalry Group were eventually assembled at 
Fort Meade, Maryland. In order to return the Regiment to a three-squadron configuration, the 
35th Mechanized Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, an all-Black unit, was reassigned to the 
Regiment on January 15, 1948. Its incorporation into the 3d ACR marked the first time that 
African American Troopers were assigned to the Regiment. 

On 5 November 1948, the 3d Cavalry Group (Mechanized) was redesignated as the 3d Ar- 
mored Cavalry Regiment. The 43d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron became the 1st Battal- 
ion, the 3rd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron became the 2nd Battalion, and the 35th Cavalry 
Reconnaissance Squadron became the 3rd Battalion. 

During the period of 1948-1951, the Regiment participated in many major field training ex- 
ercises in the eastern United States. It also conducted training during the summer months for 
Reserve Component armor units at Fort Meade and Camps Picket and A.P. Hill, Virginia. 

The outbreak of the Korean War meant that the Regiment would have to train replacements 
for that conflict, despite losing many of its officers and Troopers to units going to Korea. 

In February 1952, the Regiment moved from Fort Meade to Camp Pickett where it remained 
until May 1954. After participating in Exercise Flashbum at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the 
Regiment moved back to Fort Meade. 



T-41 Walker “Bulldog” tanks being tested by 2nd Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment 
during Operation Snowfall, a joint Army- Air Force exercise at Camp Drum, New York, 10 Feb- 
ruary 1952. 

The Regiment began an intense ten week train-up at Camp A.P. Hill on 1 April 1955 which 
was interrupted when the Troopers were required to fight a devastating fire in Bowling Green, 
Virginia. The climax of the training was a firepower demonstration on 24 June followed by the 
return to Fort Meade from 27 to 29 June. 


22 


Operation Gyroscope 

In August 1955, the Regiment became the first unit to deploy to Germany under Operation 
Gyroscope — a plan under which divisional and separate regimental-sized units were sent over- 
seas as replacements for similar units which would return to the United States. The term Opera- 
tion Gyroscope refers to the attribute of rotation with stability exhibited by a gyroscope. This 
was an attempt by the Army to reduce personnel turbulence by transferring entire units rather 
than individual Soldiers. 

The advance party arrived in Germany on 26 June. On 2 August the 1st and 2nd Battalions 
sailed from New York aboard the U.S.N.S. Randall and arrived at Bremerhaven on 10 August. 
The 3rd and Provisional Battalions sailed from New York on U.S.N.S. Buckner on 6 August and 
arrived at Bremerhaven on 14 August. 

Replacing the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment, the Regimental Headquarters was stationed at 
Merrell Barracks, Nuremberg with the 1st Battalion at Christensen Barracks, Bindlach, the 2nd 
Battalion at Warner Barracks, Bamberg, and the 3d Battalion at Pond Barracks, Amberg. The 
exchange with the 2d ACR was completed by 15 August. 

II / p / 


r< 



C Troop prepares to move out on a training exercise in West Germany during the Operation 
Gyroscope period, ca. 1957. 


The 3d ACR participated in numerous field maneuvers such as NATO exercise Cordon 
Bleu and Command Post Exercise Polo Ball. In addition, the various units in the Regiment pa- 
trolled both the Czechoslovakian and East German borders, frequently working with the West 
German Federal Border Police, the Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS). 

The 3d ACR returned to the United States in February 1958 and was once again stationed at 
Fort Meade. The Regiment became part of the Strategic Army Corps (STRAC) and, from 1958 
to 1961, it was the recipient of four STRAC streamers, awarded for superior readiness and 
training. 


23 


In May 1960 the Army changed the unit designation “battalion” back to the old cavalry des- 
ignation of “squadron”. From the end of World War II until 1967 separate brigades and regi- 
ments were not authorized their own shoulder sleeve insignia, but on 12 June 1967, 3d ACR 
Troopers were finally authorized to wear the “Bug” patch on their left shoulders. Prior to this 
change, the patch was worn on the left breast pocket because the patch of the next higher head- 
quarters was worn on the shoulder. 

Because so many East Germans had been fleeing into West Berlin, Soviet forces in East 
Germany abruptly erected a wall between East and West Berlin in 1961, prohibiting movement 
between the two halves of the city except through controlled check points. The Soviets also 
began erecting a stronger barrier system all along the East-West German Inter-Zonal Border. 
These unannounced activities during the middle of the Cold War startled the NATO alliance 
and created a heightened sense fear that the Soviet Union was preparing for war. 

As a result of the Soviet’s actions, the 3d ACR was alerted for movement back to Germany. 
At the time, the Regiment was involved in field training exercises on two different installations. 
The units were able to move back to home station, pack and ship vehicles, and equipment, sail 
to Germany, and be ready for operations in 30 days. 

Seventh Army 

The 3d ACR was initially placed under the Seventh Army Support Command and given the 
mission of rear area security. From 1961 to 1968, the Regiment was situated with its Headquar- 
ters and Headquarters Troop and the 1st Squadron at H.D. Smith Barracks, Baumholder, the 
Aviation company at Hoppstadten and the 2nd and 3rd Squadrons at Kapaun Barracks, Kaiser- 
slautern. The Troopers of the Regiment spent many hours reconnoitering the road network in 
the Seventh Army’s area to determine the best routes for rapid deployment in case of attack by 
Warsaw Pact Forces. 



PFC Bob Allsop of L Troop at Kapaun Barracks in Kaiserslautern, Ger- 
many, ca. 1963. Note the "Bug” patch worn on his pocket. (Photo cour- 
tesy James A. Riebe) 


24 


During 1962 and 1963, the 1st and 2nd Squadrons relieved elements of the 14th ACR for 
two one-month periods along the East German border. From November 1962 through Novem- 
ber 1964, the 3d ACR had a troop attached to the 14th ACR for border surveillance operations 
on a monthly rotational basis. In February 1964, the Regiment came under the direct control of 
the Seventh Army. On 10 June 1964, the 2nd Squadron was redesignated as the 1st Squadron, 
1 1th ACR, and returned to the United States with that regiment. 

Concurrently, 1st Squadron, 1 1th ACR was redesignated as 2nd Squadron, 3d ACR and at- 
tached to VII Corps with its duty station at Straubling, Germany. The 2nd Squadron continued 
the mission of the 3d ACR along the Czech border, operating two border camps with one troop 
until relieved of its border mission and relocated to Kaiserslautern in March 1965. 

While it was stationed in Europe, the 3d ACR performed varied and outstanding service for 
the Seventh Army. The entire Regiment participated in a number of major field training exer- 
cises (FTX), including Scotch Gambit I and II in 1962, exercise Big Lift in 1963, Brandy Sta- 
tion in 1965 and Silver Talon in 1966. In addition, the squadrons took part as separate units in 
several other exercises such as Saber Knot in December 1962, a major counter-insurgency exer- 
cise in Bavaria in 1964, and Lundy’s Lane I and II in 1964 and 1965. In these latter exercises, 
the squadrons of the 3d ACR acted as aggressor forces to test the capabilities of several British 
armor units. In December 1966, the Regiment was assigned to V Corps, and in 1967 took part 
in Exercise Large Play. 

Fort Lewis, Washington 

With the Vietnam War expanding, the 3d ACR was ordered back to Fort Lewis, Washing- 
ton for a possible deployment to that country in the early 1970s. By the time the Regiment ar- 
rived there in July 1968, the planned deployment was cancelled due to the beginning of the 
draw-down in Vietnam, and 2nd Squadron was inactivated in 1971. 

The Regiment became a major REFORGER unit, capable of rapidly deploying to Germany 
in the case of an incursion by Warsaw Pact forces. Troopers from the 3d ACR also spent con- 
siderable time at the Yakima Firing Center training National Guard cavalry units. 



3d ACR personnel train National Guard Cavalrymen at 
Yakima Firing Center, Washington, ca. 1969 on M48A3 
tanks and Ml 13 AC A Vs. 


25 


Return to Fort Bliss, Texas 

In July 1972, after 1 15 years, the Regiment returned to Fort Bliss, Texas. The 1st and 3rd 
Squadrons, Headquarters Troop, Air Cavalry Troop, and 513th Maintenance Company were 
augmented in 1973 with the addition of several new units. These included the 181st Ordnance 
Detachment (Missile) and the 66th Military Intelligence Detachment. 

2nd Squadron was reconstituted using personnel and equipment from the 1st Squadron, 6th 
Cavalry, which was moved from Fort Meade to Fort Bliss. In 1976 the size of the Regiment 
was again increased with the addition of the 43rd Combat Engineer Company. 

The 3d ACR’s readiness was tested in REFORGER 75 when elements of the Regiment 
were airlifted to the Federal Republic of Germany where they drew prepositioned equipment 
from depot stocks. After selected officers and Troopers participated in CPX Autumn Sails with 
members of the British and West German Armies, the 3d ACR took part in FTX Straffe Zugel 
(Strong Rein) with the German 1st Panzergrenadier Division. 

After returning to Fort Bliss, the Regiment participated in a number of major exercises. In 
late 1973, the Regiment took part in Brave Shield VI, followed by Brave Rifles VII in February 
1974, Gobi Express V in September 1974, Brave Rifles IX in January 1975, and JTX Gallant 
Shield in the spring of 1975. The Regiment also participated in Orbit Phantom, an annual com- 
mand post exercise, at Fort Hood, Texas involving III Corps units. 

In October 1976, L Troop took part in a month-long exchange with A Squadron, 4th Cav- 
alry Regiment of the Royal Australian Armored Corps. The 3d Armored Cavalry was once 
again represented in Germany when 1st Squadron participated in REFORGER 77. The Regi- 
ment was also involved in Exercise Bold Move. 



“ Old Bill”, SSG Kenneth Allen of Troop A, 1st Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry 
Regiment, bears the Regimental Colors on “Bug Day, ” 9 September 1972. Bug Day 
was the welcoming ceremony for the Regiment at Fort Bliss, Texas. 


26 



From April 1978 to May 1979, H Company conducted Operational Test II of the then-new 
XM1 Abrams Mam Battle Tank. The company logged nearly 300,000 miles, used over 
320,000 gallons of fuel, fired 8,000 round of 105mm ammunition, and 200,000 rounds of small 
arms ammunition in round-the-clock operations with the new tank. 

The 407th Army Security Agency Company was assigned to the Regiment in 1979 and a 
year later the 89th and 507th Chemical Detachments were added, providing needed support in 
the electronic and chemical warfare fields. In the spring of 1980, elements of the 1st Royal 
Tank Regiment and the 9th/ 12th Lancers from the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) traded 
places with E Troop for a month of desert training. 

On 8 April 1981, General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, who had been living at Fort Bliss, 
passed away and 2nd Squadron was called upon to provided the Salute Battery and Honor Pla- 
toons as well as many other personnel to support the ceremonies at Fort Bliss. 

In March 1982, the Regiment took part in Exercise Border Star. Another aspect of the 
Regiment’s training and operations was its affiliation programs with various National Guard 
cavalry units both at Fort Bliss and at the Guard’s home stations. 

The Regimental Aviation Section became the Regimental Support Aviation Troop (RSAT) 
on 5 March 1982. RSAT’s mission was to provide command-and-control aircraft, liaison, troop 
lift, and critical logistic re-supply support as well as combat medical evacuation. 

On 29 August 1982, the Regiment’s advance party departed for Germany for REFORGER 
82. This deployment would see the Regiment, less Air Cavalry Troop, deploy for operations 
which would last until October. 

On 16 November 1982, the 407th ASA Company and 66th MI Detachments were combined 
to form the 66th Military Intelligence Company (CEWI). CEWI (pronounced see-wee) stands 
for “Combat Electronic Warfare Intelligence.” 

In 1985, two events occurred that further enhanced the Regiment’s capabilities. The first 
was the activation, on 1 6 April, of the Support Squadron, the first new squadron to be activated 
since 1960. The other was that 2nd Squadron became the first unit in the United States Army to 
field the new Ml A1 variant of the Abrams tank. Another major change occurred on 16 October 
1988 when the Regimental Support Aviation Troop, with other aviation units, was redesignated 
as the newest element of the Regiment — the 4th Squadron. 



An OH- 5 8 from Air Cavalry Troop during an exercise at Ft. Bliss. 


27 



The Persian Gulf War 

On 7 August 1990, the Regiment was alerted for movement to defend Saudi Arabia from 
Iraqi Aggression. In September, the Regiment arrived in country as part of the XVIII Airborne 
Corps and moved into a defensive position south of the Kuwaiti border. During this defensive 
buildup, known as “Operation Desert Shield”, the Regiment trained extensively in anticipation 
of the ground assault which would be required to liberate Kuwait. 

On 17 January 1991, the United Nations initiated “Operation Desert Storm.” In “Operation 
Desert Caravan” the Regiment moved 2400 vehicles 250 kilometers west to set up in the neutral 
zone on the Saudi/Iraqi border, as the air war progressed overhead. On 22 January 1991, ele- 
ments of Troop I, accompanying 63rd Colonel Douglas H. Starr, engaged in the first ground 
combat by the XVIII Airborne Corps, when they responded to an Iraqi attack on a Saudi border 
outpost. 

On 22 February 1991, G Troop, 2nd Squadron led the Regiment across the berms into Iraq 
for the start of the ground phase of the war. In 100 hours the Regiment moved over 300 kilo- 
meters north, then east to Basra, Iraq, ending the war in the Rumaylah oil fields. The Regiment 
left the remnants of three Republican Guard Division in its wake. 

The 3d ACR returned to Fort Bliss as quickly as it had deployed to the Middle East, arriving 
home on 5 April 1991. 



28 


Fort Carson, Colorado 

In early 1996, the Regiment once again answered the call to “Boots and Saddles” and 
moved to Fort Carson, Colorado. The Mountain Post is named for the famous Colorado fron- 
tiersman and military officer, Christopher “Kit” Carson. President James K. Polk appointed 
Carson a lieutenant in the Mounted Rifles in 1848, in recognition of his service to the nation. 
However, due to political issues brought about by his support of General Stephen W. Kearney’s 
conquest of California, his appointment was not confirmed by the Senate. Carson is listed on 
Regimental returns as “...appointed but not joined.” 



Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson. 


Shortly after arriving at Fort Carson, the 3d ACR celebrated its 150th anniversary. In addi- 
tion, various units of the Regiment established partnerships with several communities in the 
Pikes Peak region. 

3d ACR Troopers continued to hone their war-fighting skills with operations at Ft. Carson 
and the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, east of Trinidad, Colorado. During Rotation 98-1 at the 
National Training Center (NTC) at Ft. Irwin, CA, the Regiment once again set the standard and 
demonstrated its lethality by the destruction of the Opposing Force (OPFOR). This deployment 
was the best recorded to that date by a regimental-size unit. 

Elements of the Regiment also operated with other Army units in exercises at the NTC, the 
Joint Readiness Training Center at Ft. Polk, Louisiana, and other locations. 


29 


Bosnia 

In August 1998, the Regiment was notified that it would participate in the Bosnian peace- 
keeping mission as part of Stabilization Force 7 (SFOR 7). This would be a unique deployment 
because the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment (less 1st Squadron) would be under the operational 
control of the Texas National Guard’s 49th Armored Division. SFOR 7 was the first time that a 
National Guard organization would have command authority over active component units as 
well as a multinational force, known as Task Force Eagle. 

The Regiment began preparations for the SFOR mission while at the same time continuing 
its normal training and garrison duties. Arrangements had to be made to store personal property 
and vehicles, provide for maintenance of military vehicles and equipment that would remain at 
Fort Carson, and many other details. 



Srebrenik Castle, north ofTuzla, Bosnia. 


3d ACR Troopers had to stand down from a more aggressive war fighting posture to act as 
neutral observers. They trained long and hard at Brcko, a simulated Bosnian village built by 
Fort Carson to provide a realistic training environment. After taking part in sustained training 
exercises conducted by other units stationed at Ft. Carson, those members of the Regiment 
slated for the deployment successfully completed a rigorous exercise at Ft. Polk, Louisiana de- 
signed to test their readiness for the SFOR mission. 

When the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment deployed, beginning in February 2000, it repre- 
sented 75 percent of the American contribution to the Multinational Division North (MND-N) 
and constituted the bulk of the American maneuver element. 


30 


2nd Squadron was located at Camp McGovern, 3rd Squadron at Camp Dobol while 4th and 
Support Squadrons operated from Comanche Base. 

Saber Squadron’s area of responsibility was one of the largest in the Balkans and included 
Brcko and Modrica. The people of these cities made the mission more demanding because they 
disliked having the SFOR personnel in their area. Despite this, the Saber patrols covered over 
500,000 miles, inspected more than thirty weapons storage sites and collected over 300 weap- 
ons and pieces of explosive ordnance. 

The Troopers of Saber Squadron helped facilitate the elections that began a new era of de- 
mocracy for the Bosnian state. There were no major incidents or violent demonstrations in their 
area of responsibility during the six month deployment. Saber Troopers also conducted joint 
operations with the other countries from the multinational force. 

Thunder Squadron occupied Camp Dobol and its area of responsibility on 27 March 2000. 
Thunder Squadron Troopers provided security for more than 3000 Bosniak widows and mourn- 
ers who returned to the Serb-dominated town of Potacari. This town is thought to be the scene 
of the massacre of over ten thousand Bosniaks by the Bosnian Serb Army in 1995. Despite 
various attempts to prevent their return, the “Women of Srebrenica” returned safely to mourn 
and pray at Potacari. 

For the first time, a U.S. Army artillery unit conducted patrols as part of the peacekeeping 
operations for MND-N when the Troopers of Regulator Battery assumed peacekeeping respon- 
sibility for Banovici and Zivinici. Other activities included weapons storage site inspections, 
removal of roadblocks, and confiscation of illegally cached weapons. Thunder Squadron also 
conducted joint patrols with Turkish, Russian, Estonian, Polish, Swedish, and Danish troops. 

Long Knife Squadron was paired with the 49th Aviation Brigade of the Texas National 
Guard to form the joint Aviation Brigade for the SFOR 7 rotation. After intensive training, the 
squadron’s aircraft were flown to Corpus Christi, Texas and loaded onto a ship for transport to 
the port of Rijeka, Croatia. 

Long Knife aviators supported reconnaissance, security, and air movement missions with 
both American and international units flying missions not only for MND-N, but also for Multi- 
National Divisions Southwest and Southeast. The aircrews of 4th Squadron flew almost 5,000 
sorties for over 2,000 missions, logging more than 12,000 hours. 

While the line squadrons were conducting their operations, the Muleskinners of Support 
Squadron were busy setting up base shop operations at Camp Comanche. In addition, support 
teams were co-located with Saber Squadron at Camp McGovern and Thunder Squadron at 
Camp Dobol, as well as at Camp Eagle to support Division Troops. 

Over the next seven months Support Squadron provided uninterrupted direct support ground 
maintenance, aviation intermediate maintenance, supply, medical, and materiel management 
support to the Regiment as well as the various active duty and reserve units that comprised Task 
Force Eagle. The Muleskinners also provided support to, and conducted logistics training with, 
many of the multi-national elements of Multi-national Division (North). 

While the SFOR units were involved in the peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, Task Force 
Rifles (TFR) was activated back at Fort Carson. Composed of Tiger Squadron and all Regi- 
mental units remaining at Fort Carson, TFR was tasked with post red cycle duties as well as 
maintaining the many vehicles that were not taken to Bosnia. 


31 



Additionally, TFR conducted level II gunnery, externally-evaluated lane training, and Pinon 
Strike 2000 at Pinyon Canyon Maneuver Area. TFR also assumed the role of Opposing Force 
for other units preparing for NTC deployments. The Troopers of 571st Medical Company, after 
standing down from their MAST mission at Fort Bliss, deployed to Kuwait to assume the 
medevac mission for Operation Desert Spring. 

Members of TFR also were tasked to perform the Wild Land Fire Fighting mission, by pre- 
paring to deploy to any fires east of the Mississippi River. Tiger Squadron conducted a Level I 
gunnery and a Combined Arms Live Fire Exercise before preparing to receive Regimental units 
returning from Bosnia. 

TFR also represented the Regiment at Fort Hood during CPX Ulchi Focus Lens. This exer- 
cise simulated the deployment of the Regiment to Korea. Before the Troopers of Task Force 
Eagle could return to Fort Carson, they had to train their replacements to assume the peacekeep- 
ing mission. Once this was accomplished, the various units began returning to Fort Carson and 
the last unit closed on 7 October 2000. 


21 March 2000. Sapper Company Troopers work with Danish Army engineers to de- 
launch a military bridge that temporarily replaced a bridge destroyed in the fighting. 
When a new highway bridge was built, it was removed. 


32 


Exercise Bright Star 01/02 


Beginning in September 2001, Tiger Squadron, with elements of the Regimental Headquar- 
ters, Longknife and Muleskinner Squadrons, deployed to Egypt to participate in exercise Bright 
Star 01/02 as part of a Combined Forces Land Component command (CFLCC) coalition. The 
coalition included elements from the U.S. Marine Corps, Egypt, France, Kuwait, Greece, Italy, 
and the British Army. 

The 3d Troopers took part in field training and live fire exercises while in Egypt. They also 
conducted training on nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare, night warfare, and the use of 
smoke on the battlefield. Static displays and briefings on Air Defense Artillery capabilities 
were also provided. Aviation support was provided for the exercise by Longknife Troopers in 
the form of medical evacuation and personnel transport, while the Muleskinners of Support 
Squadron established and operated a logistics support system. 

In addition, members of Tiger Squadron and the Regimental Staff were tasked to conduct 
affiliation training with their Egyptian counterparts to teach them to function as Observer/ 
Controllers (OC) for the forces involved in ground tactical operations, as well as establishing 
and maintaining communications and command and control between the various multinational 
OC forces. 



A D Company tank maneuvers through the Egyptian desert during Bright Star 01/02. 


The terrorist attacks against the U.S. on 11 September caused the 3d ACR units in Egypt 
wonder if they would be involved in some form of retaliatory action, but all deployed personnel 
returned to Fort Carson by 10 November. Valuable experience was gained by all participants, 
demonstrating that disparate coalition forces could overcome different doctrines and cultures to 
successfully work together. 


33 



Operation Iraqi Freedom I 

Because of the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on 11 September 2001, coalition forces invaded 
Iraq in March 2002. As a result, the Troopers of the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment readied 
themselves for deployment in support of the campaign to remove the despotic regime of Sad- 
dam Hussein. 

Beginning in August 2002, the Regiment began to prepare for operations in the Central 
Command Area of Responsibility (CENTCOM AOR). The preparations included a National 
Training Center rotation, Warfighter exercises with both III Corps and V Corps, intensive indi- 
vidual and collective training, weapons qualification, and lane training at Fort Carson. 

In addition to the intense training, the Regiment fielded 693 pieces of new equipment, and 
reactivated its second AH-64A Apache attack helicopter unit, Quicksilver Troop. 



XVI RCSM, John R. Caldwell bids farewell to a 3d ACR Trooper as he is about to board the 
flight to Kuwait at the Colorado Springs Jet Center . 


The 3d ACR received a deployment order for movement to the CENTCOM AOR on 14 
February 2003. Equipment was prepared and moved by rail from Fort Carson to the port at 
Beaumont, Texas. The first personnel arrived in Kuwait on 2 April and the remainder of the 
Regiment arrived in Theater by the middle of the month. 

The main body of the Regiment crossed the border into Iraq on 25 April 2003 and was im- 
mediately tasked to perform an economy of force mission to secure and stabilize the western 
part of the country. This area had been by-passed during the advance to Baghdad, and the Regi- 
ment had little intelligence on what would be found there. The Troopers found that they had 


34 




given responsibility for A1 Anbar province, the largest province in Iraq, covering fully one third 
of the country, or about 140,000 square kilometers. It was the largest assigned area of responsi- 
bility and functioning, assigned to the smallest maneuver unit directly subordinate to Combined 
Joint Task Force-7. This area included the “Sunni Triangle”, the part of Iraq that Saddam Hus- 
sein, his family, and the senior leaders of the Ba’ath Party called home. A1 Anbar was home to 
forty-eight primary and fourteen sub-tribes and it shared a 900 kilometer border with Saudi 
Arabia, Jordan, and Syria. 

With the attachment of a number of other units, the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment became 
the nucleus of a Regimental Combat Team named Task Force Rifles (see Appendix H for a list 
of attached units). The Regiment’s strength grew to include five squadrons, four battalions, and 
eight separate companies totaling more than 8,200 troops. 


PV2 Joseph M. King of A Troop provides security for his dismounted team while they 
sweep the area after an ambush near the headquarters of the Ba ’ath Party in Husaybah 
on 27 October 2003. Photo courtesy of Andy Rogers/Colorado Springs Gazette. 

The various elements of Task Force Rifles successfully performed many missions across the 
entire spectrum of military operations from offensive missions to civil affairs operations. Daily 
operations included reconnaissance, security patrols, escort duty, static security, and presence 
patrols. Other types of missions included capturing or killing former regime elements, securing 
mass grave sites, and restoring law and order by reopening Iraqi police stations, courthouses, 
and prisons. Tankers, artillerymen and other Troopers whose specialties don’t normally require 
them to perform these types of missions, found themselves operating like infantry and scouts. 


35 



The combat units were asked by the city of Fallujah not to use their tracked vehicles for pa- 
trolling in the built-up areas because it would disrupt the community. To increase mobility and 
decrease damage to infrastructure, they adopted High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles 
(HMMWV) for many of these operations. The trade-off for the increased mobility was that the 
patrols became highly vulnerable to terrorist attacks, particularly those employing Improvised 
Explosive Devices (IED). As a result of these attacks, use of armored vehicles was eventually 
resumed. 

Offensive operations mounted by Task Force Rifles included Rifles Scorpion, Rifles Go 
West, Rifles Blitz, and Rifles Fury. Task Force Rifles initiated operations by conducting recon- 
naissance missions in the Euphrates River Crescent to identify targets, remove hostile Ba’ath 
Party members from power, and eliminate anti-coalition media sources. 

The Regimental Combat Team continued operations focusing on finding and destroying re- 
gime loyalist camps and weapons caches between Lake Tar Tar and the Euphrates River. This 
operation resulted in the apprehension of several individuals from the Defense Intelligence 
Agency’s Top 55 Black List of High Value Targets (HVT). 


PFC James V. Garza (L) and SPC Ruperto Estrada of 3rd Platoon, G Troop apply C4 
plastic explosive to 82 millimeter mortar ammunition stacked for demolition at a col- 
lection point northeast of Fallujah during Operation Longstreet. 

By the end of August, the Task Force had confiscated 1,080 122mm artillery rounds, 928 
mortar rounds, 8,991 23mm rounds, 2,828 AK-47s, two pistols, ten anti-tank missiles, forty- 
five anti-tank mines, eight surface-to-air missiles, four kegs of gunpowder, 300 130mm high 
explosive rounds, three boxes of hand grenades, twenty high explosive anti-tank rounds, 125 
100mm tank gun rounds, 134 rocket-propelled grenades, two sniper rifles, thirty 37mm anti- 
aircraft rounds, one improvised explosive device, and one SA-7 surface to air guided missile 
system. 


36 


The Task Force discovered an Iranian Terrorist organization called the Mujahideen e-Khalq 
(MEK) occupying a compound in Fallujah. The MEK are dedicated to the overthrow of the 
current Iranian regime and therefore were supported by Saddam Hussein. While it appeared to 
have taken no action against Coalition forces, on 9 May G Troop executed Operation Saber Ul- 
timatum. This raid forced the surrender of the compound and a weapons cache. 

Hand in hand with combat operations, Task Force Rifles spent an enormous amount of time 
and energy performing civil-military operations (CMO). The first of these was establishing a 
Government Support Team (GST) in Ar Ramadi. The GST opened its office in the Ar Ramadi 
Municipal Building in order to establish a relationship with the civic leaders of the capital of A1 
Anbar. 

One of the challenges facing both the GST and local government officials was developing a 
decentralized approach to operations because of the distance from Baghdad and the fact that the 
local authorities were used to highly centralized control by the old regime. The Regimental 
Commander, Colonel David A. Teeples, the GST, and the Regimental Staff all provided guid- 
ance so that the local leaders could begin learning to operate independently. 



COL David A. Teeples meets with representatives of the Mujahideen e-Khalq on 9 May 
2003 before seizing their compound in Fallujah. The organization, a group of Iranians 
who want to topple the current government of Iran, is considered a terrorist organiza- 


37 



In order to help the local officials adapt to the new system, Colonel Teeples established bi- 
weekly meetings with the most important leaders in A1 Anbar. This assistance began to show 
results after a few months as the new leaders began to govern with increasing independence. 

During his first two meetings with the province sheiks, Colonel Teeples communicated coa- 
lition goals and his priorities of security, fuel, and employment directly to them. At the second 
meeting in July, in addition to the sheiks, several mayors were invited to join the proceedings to 
further strengthen the cooperation between coalition forces and leaders. 

In August 2003 when no one from A1 Anbar was invited to sit on the new Iraqi Governing 
Council in Baghdad, the people of A1 Anbar were outraged. In order to preserve the progress 
that had been achieved so far, the Governor, sheiks, and civic and religious leaders from each 
community were invited to participate in a new A1 Anbar Provincial Council. 

Following the election of a Council Chairman and Vice Chairman, the Council met at vari- 
ous locations around the province and began work on resolving issues that affected local citi- 
zens. This was also the first time that women were allowed to take part in the government proc- 
ess. The Province Council evolved into a functioning civilian government that demonstrated 
that the democratic process would work for the Iraqi people. 



22 May 2003. With Air Defense Battery providing security, Iraqi workers wait at a 
phosphate plant in Al Qaim for their first pay in months. Tiger Squadron confiscated 
about 200 million Denar in Iraqi government funds from a local bank to pay govern- 
ment employees. Each man received 25,000 Denar, equivalent to about $25 U.S. 
Photo courtesy of Andy Rogers/Colorado Springs Gazette. 


38 



Despite being determined to take charge of their own affairs, the lack of resources made any 
progress extremely difficult. In an effort to re-energize local government agencies and get peo- 
ple back to work, the GST was able to channel over 60 million U.S. dollars to some 40,000 civil 
servants in Fallujah, Habbaniyah, Ramadi, Hit, Hadithah, A1 Qaim, and Ar Rutbah and about 
30,000 former soldiers living in the province who had been discharged during the CJTF-7 con- 
solidation prior to Task Force Rifles’ arrival in the province. 

Task Force Rifles facilitated the hiring of 400 workers for the Ar Ramadi Department of 
Sanitation, many of whom were hired from the A1 Tesh refugee camp. Wherever possible, local 
people were put to work on these projects so that by the end of September over 30 million dol- 
lars had been disbursed by the Task Force. 


SGT Carl D. Harding, CSM Gilberto Muniz, and CPT Mary Thompson, ofHHT, Sup- 
port Squadron, distribute school supplies at a boy ’s school in Iraq. Over 300 schools 
in Task Force Rifles ’ area of responsibility were renovated and reopened. 

Various units of the Task Force found themselves managing a large number of projects to 
rebuild the infrastructure and restore basic services, efforts aimed at winning the hearts and 
minds of the Iraqi people. Many schools in Iraq were found to have been turned into munitions 
storage facilities, because the regime knew Coalition Forces would not attack schools. These 
schools were cleared, renovated and returned to use. 

The United Nations World Food Program facility, operating from Ar Ramadi, was initially 
secured by elements of the Task Force. This facility received and distributed over 1,400 truck 
loads of food to the local citizens. Task Force Rifles also distributed over 49,000 Humanitarian 
Daily Rations (HDR) to various hospitals, clinics, and other facilities in the area. 

Hospitals were also renovated. Unlike those facilities used by the members of the old re- 
gime, health care facilities used by the common people were found to be far below normal 


39 



standards. The Task Force brought medical care to people who had never seen a health care 
professional in their lives. Medical supplies and equipment were provided to the Iraqi facilities 
along with food and other basic items. Specialized healthcare was provided by a clinic estab- 
lished and staffed by female Task Force personnel especially to provide treatment to Iraqi 
women. 

Task Force Rifles established the first Highway Patrol in Iraq and hired over 1500 police 
officers and other security personnel. Providing employment to idle citizens not only gave 
them an income, but put more responsibility for their security into their own hands. 


SPC David S. Selby leads members of L Troop ’s 1st Platoon as they execute a raid in 
Raw ah, Iraq. 

Another security mission performed by Task Force Rifles was control of the border crossing 
points of Husayba and Tenaf (Syria), and Trebil (Jordan). In addition, a crossing control point 
was established at Ar Ar (Saudi Arabia) where only an open border has existed before. There 
was an urgent need to gain control of these border crossing points to prevent more support for 
the terrorists from entering Iraq. 

The Task Force, in conjunction with the A1 Anbar governor, stood up a force of several 
hundred border guards who were paid by the A1 Anbar government rather than by coalition 
forces. An additional requirement was to have the crossing point at Ar Ar opened and manned 
in time for the Haj pilgrimage to the holy cities of Saudi Arabia. Approximately 31,000 Iraqis 
took advantage of the opportunity to take part in the Haj . 

Another Task Force project to increase security was the establishment of the Iraqi Civil De- 
fense Corps (ICDC) training facility north of the city of Hit. More than 3000 troops were 
trained and then assigned to two ICDC battalions. 

Longknife Squadron established aerial border qualification standards and became the first 
aviation unit in theater to operate well inside the five kilometer buffer zone established by U.S. 


40 



Central Command. The success of the program resulted in its adoption by CJTF-7 as the thea- 
ter standard. 

Over twenty forward Operating Bases (FOB) were established in order to provide the best 
possible living conditions for Task Force personnel, and from which combat, security, and sup- 
port operations could be conducted throughout a 140,000 square kilometer area. The various 
FOBs established by the Task Force became nodes in a massive logistical network. The various 
support organizations in the Task Force operated more than 800 convoys, driving over 3.8 mil- 
lion miles to keep Task Force units supplied with everything needed to continue operations. 

These support units, used to operating in relative security, found that they had become 
prime targets after terrorists discovered that the vehicles with little or no armor were easy tar- 
gets and focused their attention on them. The support units learned to deal with the threat and 
continued to march, playing a vital role in securing peace and stability in A1 Anbar Province. 



SPC Jason Co ffman (L) and SPC Erik Newlander service the rotor system of an OH- 
58D Kiowa Warrior from O Troop, 4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment at 
Habbaniyah, Iraq, 10 May 2003. 4th Squadron provided continuous support to the 
various ground elements of Task Force Rifles. U.S. Photo courtesy of Andy Rogers / 
Colorado Springs Gazette. 

Near the beginning of January, heavy equipment and vehicles had begun moving south to 
Kuwait to be prepared for the voyage home. 3d ACR Troopers began flying back to the U.S. on 
23 March while vehicles were loaded as the ships became available. 

Initial contact was made with the 7th Regimental Combat Team of the U.S. Marine Corps 
on 18 January when representatives of that unit arrived at Rifles Base for briefings in order to 
begin the planning necessary to accomplish the Marines’ relief of Task Force Rifles. The Ma- 
rines began arriving in numbers by the middle of February and beginning on 4 March, joint 
missions were conducted with Marine units. 

Task Force Rifles continued to conduct combat operations until 14 March 2004 when au- 
thority for the A1 Anbar Province Area of Operations was officially transferred to the U.S. Ma- 
rine Corps. The Regimental Combat Team’s last flight from A1 Asad departed on 18 March 
and the last flight from Kuwait departed on 3 1 March 2004. 


41 


For its service in Operation Iraqi Freedom I, the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment received the 
Distinguished Unit Citation. The award certificate is reproduced in Appendix D. Despite the 
Regiment’s successes with the many and varied missions it performed in Iraq, it should be re- 
membered that the Regiment and its attachments were still operating in a combat environment. 
At any given time in the Regimental Combat Team’s are of responsibility, some members of 
the Regiment were under fire. Approximately 400 citations for valor were awarded, but thirty- 
three 3d Armored Cavalry officers and Troopers died during Operation Iraqi Freedom I. Eight- 
een Troopers attached to the Task Force also died. 233 Task Force Rifles Troopers were 
wounded. The names of the Troopers who died may be found at Appendix I. 



The memorial service at Forward Operating Base Tiger for 
SGT Michael E. Dooley of B Troop. SGT Dooley was killed 
in action at Al Qaim, Iraq on 8 June 2003. Photo courtesy 
Patrick Andrade/ Newsweek. 


42 


Operation Iraqi Freedom 04-06 

The Brave Rifles team had barely settled back into the routine at Fort Carson when, in July 
2004, another deployment order alerted the Regiment that it would return to Iraq. This gave the 
members of the Regiment only about ten months back home with their families and to ready 
equipment and train up before returning to the CENTCOM Theater of Operations. In August 
over 400 members of the Regiment reenlisted together in a mass ceremony. 

In a flurry of activity, the Fort Carson Directorate of Logistics, in conjunction with contrac- 
tor personnel, “up-armored” the Regiment’s tactical wheeled vehicle fleet before it was shipped 
back to Iraq. This represented a major improvement in protection for personnel who had previ- 
ously been required to operate thin-skinned vehicles under the threat of enemy attack. 

In March, the Regiment once again deployed to Kuwait and began moving into Iraq at the 
beginning of April, 2005. The 3d ACR deployed to South Baghdad, conducting operations in 
northern Babil Province for almost two months. Saddam Hussein used the fertile farmlands and 
luxurious riverside mansions of the area a rewards for top party officials, military officers, se- 
cret police, and intelligence agents. After the fall of the regime, the area became one of the 
most troubled regions in Iraq and a staging area for terrorist operations against Baghdad. 



SSG Nathan Rico of L Troop maneuvers his Bradley Fighting Vehicle through the 
countryside of Babil Province, south of Baghdad, during a zone reconnaissance mis- 
sion on 7 April 2005. Photo courtesy Todd Heisler/Rocky Mountain News. 


43 



Upon arrival in Babil Province, the Regiment conducted reconnaissance and offensive op- 
erations to defeat the enemy insurgent network and deny the enemy the ability to disrupt politi- 
cal and economic development in Baghdad, a city of 6 million people. 

1st Squadron, 3rd Squadron, and 2nd Battalion, 70th Armor (which was attached to the 
Regiment), conducted operations with the Iraqi Army’s Intervention Force. During Operations 
Tiger Walk, Bolt Down, and Brush Back, the Regiment captured entire insurgent cells and un- 
covered stockpiles of munitions. 4th Squadron’s helicopters allowed the Regiment to gain and 
maintain contact with an elusive enemy. The combined air-ground effort denied the enemy 
freedom of movement and allowed the Regiment to kill or capture eight triggermen responsible 
for IEDs. As a result, attacks along the main supply route (Route Tampa) fell dramatically and 
the Regiment was able to protect critical areas such as Baghdad International Airport. 


SPC Brantwan Smith and members of A Troop provides overwatch for Iraqi Interven- 
tion Force soldiers during Operation Tigerwalk in Babil Province 20 April 2005. Ma- 
terials for making improvised explosive devices were found in the house being 
searched. Photo courtesy Craig F. Walker/Denver Post. 

As the Regiment began conduction counterinsurgency operations in the area south of Bagh- 
dad, 2nd Squadron responded immediately to new orders to begin movement to Western 
Ninewa Province. Support Squadron sustained fast-paced operations from an immature base 
while simultaneously supporting 2nd Squadron’s movement to what would become the new 
Regimental area of operations. 

In mid-May, after severely disrupting the enemy networks between the Tigris and Euphrates 
River Valleys south of Baghdad, the Regiment, minus 3rd Squadron, undertook a new mission 
to defeat a highly organized terrorist network in northwest Iraq, centered on the ancient city of 
Tall Afar. 


44 



An Iraqi woman hurries away from her house as 1st Squadron Troopers and Iraqi In- 
tervention Force soldiers search it during Operation Tigerwalk in Babil Province, 
south of Baghdad, 20 April 2005. Photo courtesy Craig F. Walker / The Denver Post. 


3rd Squadron, initially reinforced with the Regiment’s Air Defense Battery, an engineer pla- 
toon from the 43rd Engineer Company, an attack helicopter troop (R Troop) , 3rd Platoon, D 
Company and Iraqi Army advisors from 1st Squadron, remained in the area south of Baghdad, 
attached to the 3rd Infantry Division to give that unit the combat power that it needed to defeat 
a deeply rooted terrorist network and protect Baghdad from the devastating terror attacks origi- 
nating from this area. 

In September of 2004, Iraqi security forces in Tall Afar collapsed, and the town and the re- 
gion around it became an insurgent training area and staging base. Two months later, terrorists 
used this area to organize and conduct systematic attacks on Mosul, a city of 2.5 million people. 
Foreign extremists, combined with local insurgents and criminals under the organization A1 
Qaeda in Iraq began a reign of terror that choked the life out of Tall Afar, Biaj, and Avgani 
while victimizing people throughout the region. 2nd Squadron, with a small Regimental Com- 
mand and Control element, and a forward logistical element from Support Squadron led the 
Regiment to Tall Afar in mid-April. 

The Regiment’s area of operations in western Ninewa Province spanned 3,000 square kilo- 
meters and included 278 kilometers of the Syrian/Iraqi border (the Rabi’ah Port of Entry was 
particularly critical as the only legal border crossing in Ninewa Province). The population of 
the area is approximately 655,000 with about 200,000 people living in Tall Afar. The Regiment 
partnered with an Iraqi Border Police Brigade of five battalions manning forty-two forts along 
the Syrian border. 

The Regiment rapidly developed close relationships with their Iraqi partners. One Iraqi 
Army brigade occupied the western area of operations with battalions in Rabi’ah, Biaj, and 


45 


Sinjar, while another brigade operated in Tall Afar, and a third brigade operated from the A1 
Kisik Military Base in the northern area of operations. The Regiment also partnered with the 
Iraqi Police across the province and worked to increase their capabilities and introduce them 
into communities with little police presence. Special Forces operational detachments and Mili- 
tary Transition Teams proved invaluable in accelerating the Iraqi Army’s development. 

The Regiment, reinforced by the 2nd Squadron, 14th Cavalry, immediately challenged the 
terrorist stronghold of Tall Afar. Throughout the months of May, June, and July, Saber Squad- 
ron developed accurate intelligence through effective reconnaissance operations. The squad- 
ron’s units conducted raids and engaged in several pitched battles with the enemy that lasted 
several hours — some of the toughest urban combat seen by American units in Iraq. 

The enemy countered the advantage provided to the Troopers on the ground by reconnais- 
sance aircraft by developing a highly organized air defense network that relied on timely com- 
munications and large volumes of small arms and machinegun fire. Enemy actions against the 
Regiment’s air assets resulted in damage to twelve aircraft in less than two months of intense 
fighting. 

2nd Squadron, reinforced by D Company from 1st Squadron, countered the enemy offen- 
sive by building positive relationships with the people that led to accurate intelligence. It was 
clear that Tall Afar was under the control of A1 Qaeda in Iraq. The so-called “Battalion of the 
One True God” was highly organized into four combat battalions, each numbering between 500 
and 1000 fighters. The insurgent stronghold was in the Sarai District — a dense network of an- 
cient, multi-story stone buildings, laced with courtyards cross cut with narrow, winding alley 



SSG Justin Vasquez of L Troop questions an Iraqi man who was found with a 
cell phone in a car parked near the scene of a vehicle-borne improvised explo- 
sive device attack on 10 April 2005. Cell phones can be used to trigger IEDs. 
Sergeant Vasquez was killed in action on 5 June 2005. Photo courtesy of Todd 
Heisler/Rocky Mountain News. 


46 


ways and thus not accessible to armored vehicles. It was clear to the Iraqi Army and Regimen- 
tal leadership that to wrest control of the city from the insurgents, a large scale, combined of- 
fensive with Iraqi Army and police units would be required. The Regiment and the 3rd Iraqi 
Division began planning the operation in early July. 2nd Squadron set conditions for the opera- 
tion by improving the local government, beginning the reconstitution of the police, and engag- 
ing tribal leaders. 



A P Troop OH-58D Kiowa Warrior performs an armed reconnaissance mission over 
Sinjar, about 60 kilometers west of Tall Afar. 4th Squadron provided continuous sup- 
port for the ground maneuver elements of the Regiment. 

In late May, while 3rd Squadron assumed a brigade-sized mission south of Baghdad and R 
Troop operated temporarily with the 3rd Infantry Division, the Regimental Headquarters, 1st 
Squadron, 4th Squadron, and Support Squadron joined 2nd Squadron and initiated combat op- 
erations across western Ninewa Province. The Regiment immediately launched Operation Vet- 
erans Forward to establish the Iraqi Army, Iraqi Police, and Iraqi Border Police across the vast 
Syrian border region — a region the enemy was using to access external support from Syria. 

2nd Squadron, 14th Cavalry returned, with Iraqi Army units and 4th Squadron, conducted a 
zone reconnaissance to the north bank of the Euphrates River in the vast Jazeera Desert region 
of Ninewa and A1 Anbar Provinces. The joint operation uncovered weapons caches and killed 
or captured eight foreign terrorists responsible for the kidnapping and death of the governor of 
A1 Anbar Province. 

1st Squadron, reinforced with the 43rd Engineer Company and Air Defense Battery, established 
itself in the west, operating from bases that spanned over 1 00 kilometers from the border town 
of Rabi’ah to the cities of Sinjar and south to Biaj. By the end of May, 1st Squadron had estab- 
lished the critical supply route that follows the ancient Silk Road from the Syrian border to Tall 
Afar. 


47 


On 1 June, 1st Squadron liberated the town of Biaj from the terrorists and immediately rees- 
tablished security with the Iraqi Police and Army and A Troop. This successful operation set a 
precedent for future Regimental counterinsurgency operations across western Ninewa Province. 
1 st Squadron then moved north of Sinjar Mountain and established security at the Syrian border 
town of Rabi’ah, where they dismantled passport forging rings and captured other terrorist fa- 
cilitators. The Regiment helped to establish the Border Police and severely restricted the en- 
emy’s ability to smuggle weapons, terrorists, and suicide bombers into Ninewa Province and 
the rest of Iraq. 

In late July and early August, 2nd Squadron, 1st Squadron, U.S. Army Special Forces, and 
the Iraqi Army conducted a series of operations to defeat the enemy in Avgani, a small town 
north of Tall Afar that had served as a terrorist stronghold. An Iraqi Army battalion with U.S. 
Army Special Forces advisors then established permanent security with an Iraqi Police Force 
built from scratch. 



Members of E Troop establish security during a raid in Avgani on 13 June 2005. 
Photo courtesy Christoph Bangert/Po/aris. 


Meanwhile, 4th Squadron organized a new Q Troop, that consisted of an attached COLT 
(Combat Observation and Lasing Team) platoon, a platoon from Air Defense Battery, and a 
platoon of Iraqi Army Soldiers. Q Troop gave 4th Squadron a unit that could move rapidly 
over long distances and be inserted to conduct ground reconnaissance missions. Q Troop con- 
ducted reconnaissance and security operations in the vast desert in the southern part of the Regi- 
ment’s area of operations and along the Syrian border. 


48 


The Regiment could not have conducted these operations without the efforts of Support 
Squadron. Support Squadron moved thousands of tons of building materials, fuel, water, and 
ammunition across an area covering 22,000 square kilometers while mechanics, medics, truck 
drivers, and other Support Troopers worked tirelessly to sustain the Regiment as it pursued the 
enemy and brought security to the people of the region. 

Prior to coalition operations in August, A1 Qaeda in Iraq attempted to reinforce their efforts 
in Tall Afar. A prominent A1 Qaeda in Iraq website proclaimed that the “Lions Tall Afar” 
would never surrender their stronghold and that they would repel all Coalition and Iraqi Army 
attempts to regain control of the city. The purpose of Operation Restoring Rights was to defeat 
the insurgency in Tall Afar so that the enemy could no longer effectively conduct a campaign of 
intimidation and coercion against the local population, and to destroy the enemy bases of opera- 
tion they used to stage attacks across the western part of Iraq. 

The Iraqi Army and Coalition forces aimed to separate the enemy from the population and 
set conditions to allow the Regiment to recruit and reconstitute the police in Tall Afar, which 
was the first step in introducing the rule of law back into Tall Afar. 



SPC Crystal Cason, a property book clerk in HHT, Support Squadron, cleans the .50 
caliber machinegun she uses when she moves out as a gunner on Mule Skinner convoy 
missions. Photo courtesy Craig F. Walker/The Denver Post. 


Shaping operations for Operation Restoring Rights began with area reconnaissance in outly- 
ing communities where the Regiment received intelligence that the enemy was transiting back 
and forth to Tall Afar. Under the advice of the Iraqi Army, the 43rd Combat Engineer Com- 
pany then established a berm eight feet tall around Tall Afar to control movement into and out 
of the city. As the wall was being built the Regiment then integrated 9 Iraqi Army and Police 
battalions — over 5,500 men — into operations in and around Tall Afar. These forces included 
a battalion from the 2nd Iraqi Army Division from Irbil, and Iraqi Special Forces battalion. 


49 


an Iraqi Commando Brigade, the Mosul Emergency Police Battalion, and five battalions from 
the 3rd Iraqi Army Division. 

As 2nd Squadron conducted operations in Tall Afar, 1st Squadron conducted reconnais- 
sance from the western part of the AO (Area of Operations), moving east towards Tall Afar. 1st 
Squadron was called upon to reinforce combat efforts during Operation Restoring Freedom. 
Upon arrival in Tall Afar, tiger conducted a relief in place with 2nd Squadron and assumed con- 
trol of the western part of the city — an area where the enemy had waged a brutal campaign of 
intimidation and used vacated homes to set up complex attacks on coalition forces. 1st immedi- 
ately took the fight to the enemy, inflicting heavy losses, and preventing them diverting the 
Regiment away from their safe haven in Sarai. 



4 September 2005. A 3d ACR Bradley Fighting Vehicle maneuvers down a narrow 
street in Tall Afar. Photo courtesy Franco Pagetti. 


Simultaneously with 1st Squadron’s offensive in the west side of the city, 2nd Squadron 
executed a deliberate attack into eastern Tall Afar to isolate the enemy’s safe have in Sarai. In- 
surgents fought to stop the attack, but suffered heavy losses at the hands of 2nd Squadron, 4th 
Squadron, and the Iraqi Army. 

While 2nd Squadron isolated the enemy in the Sarai district, the Regiment took measures to 
evacuate civilians from the neighborhood through screening site manned by Support Squadron 
and the Mosul Emergency Police Battalion. During the course of the evacuation, 1 st Squadron 
moved southeast towards Sarai to further isolate insurgents located there. Attack aviation and 
precision artillery fires combined with effective ground reconnaissance to defeat the enemy in 
detail as they tried to escape. 

As coalition forces moved in on the enemy, the Regiment gained key intelligence from ci- 
vilians who wanted to regain control of their city. Intelligence reports indicated that insurgent 


50 


leadership and fighters had been so depleted that remaining insurgent leaders began to advise 
their fighters to escape from Tall Afar at all costs. In order to seize insurgents as they fled the 
city, Iraqi Army and Police forces helped the Regiment identify enemy fighters trying to es- 
cape, capturing over 800. 

While the Regiment began to clear enemy homes in the Sarai district, 2nd Battalion (White 
Falcons), 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment from the 82nd Airborne Division was sent to help 
strengthen forces already in place. This dismounted infantry battalion gave the Regiment the 
ability to effectively clear the remainder of the Sarai district, an area that proved very difficult 
to enter in armored vehicles, and prevent the enemy from regaining a foothold in the area. From 
24 August to 23 September coalition forces killed over 150 enemy fighters. 

As the bulk of the regiment fought in northwest Iraq, 3rd Squadron became the keystone of 
the Third Infantry Division’s counterinsurgency efforts in South Baghdad and northern Babil 
Province while they also secured the most critical supply route in the theater. Their aggressive 
pursuit of the enemy in this critical area dealt a severe blow to the terror network, killing scores 
of enemy and detaining hundreds. 

In addition to the all-important mission of route security, 3rd Squadron conducted numerous 
operations against enemy safe havens, leading the 3rd Infantry Division’s efforts in this critical 
area. The entrenched enemy in the area south of Baghdad used the complex canal system to 
hide while planning and staging devastating terror attacks in the city. 3rd Squadron fought 
through the tough urban and rural area and established key intelligence sources to penetrate the 
enemy’s networks as they also formed partnerships with a newly formed battalion from the 
Iraqi Army’s 6th Division. 



Lieutenant Alan Sholes of L Troop searches for weapons on a farm in Babil Province, 
south of Baghdad, on 7 April 2005. Photo courtesy Todd Heisler/Rocky Mountain 
News. 


51 


3rd Squadron conducted fourteen air assault operations to kill or capture enemy cells and 
also establish Iraqi Army patrol bases to regain control of this region. Their innovative use of 
air assault tactics, indirect fires, and patrol bases became the model for counterinsurgency ef- 
forts in the difficult south Baghdad region. 

The Regiment secured the victory in Tall Afar and across western Ninewa Province by part- 
nering with the Iraqi Army, moving into the communities and living among the people, and re- 
establishing an Iraqi Police Force that was representative of the ethnic and sectarian balance in 
the Area of Operations. Immediately following Operation Restoring Rights, the enemy realized 
that they had lost control of the city and responded to their losses with brutal suicide bombings 
in an attempt to intimidate the population. Tasting freedom, the people of Tall Afar refused to 
be intimidated and approximately 70 percent of the population living in Tall Afar voted in the 
October referendum. The pall of fear over the city lifted and the people responded with some 
1765 joining the Police Force, while more than 2700 citizens of western Ninewa enlisted in the 
Iraqi Army. 

The Regiment, working closely with local and national Iraqi government agencies, initiated 
reconstruction of the city, schools, roads, and parks. Today, over 95 percent of Tall Afar enjoys 
electricity each day, while the market places are open and the people are genuinely excited 
about the future of Tall Afar. As further testament to the revitalization of Tall Afar, over 85 
percent of the population across western Ninewa Province turned out to vote in December 2005 
for their first full-term government. 

More importantly, Iraqi Security Forces have taken the lead in conducting counterinsur- 
gency operations. Along the border, Iraqi Border Police routinely interdicted smugglers with 
no assistance from Coalition forces. Iraqi Army and Iraqi Police across the area AO secured 
polling sites with little or no Coalition assistance. In Tall Afar and towns throughout the area, 
local tips hotlines and a Joint Coordination Center allowed Iraqi Police to respond instantane- 
ously to reports of insurgent activity. The Iraqi Army took the lead in establishing security 
across the province, working closely with the Border Police and Police to provide security for 
western Nenewa Province. 

Anti-Iraqi forces want Iraq to descend into civil war so they can use this land to plan, organ- 
ize, and conduct mass murder not only in this region, but against all civilized peoples. Western 
Ninewa seemed the ideal place to incite ethnic, sectarian, and tribal conflict because it is popu- 
lated by Kurds, Arabs, Yezidis, and Turkomen, who are further subdivided into Turkomen Shia 
and Turkomen Sunni. After the Regiment and its Iraqi partners reestablished security for the 
people, reconciliation began between the region’s various factions. Life returned to Tall Afar 
and villages across the province. People are no longer afraid. They are cooperating with rapidly 
improving Iraqi Security Forces. Economic and political development is proceeding because 3d 
ACR Troopers, fighting alongside their Iraqi allies, made a difference in real people’s lives, 
bringing security and freedom to the Iraqi people. 

The 3d ACR once again paid dearly for its participation in the Global War on Terrorism. 
Thirty-nine members of the Regiment died during this deployment and approximately 126 were 
wounded. Four attached Soldiers also died. Despite this sacrifice, the officers and Troopers of 
the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment have continued to built upon the heritage established over 
160 years ago by the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. For its service in OIF 04-06, the Regi- 
ment was recognized in a speech by President George W. Bush. The President lauded the Regi- 
ment for its body of work in Tall Afar, Iraq, as an example of executing the clear, hold and 
build concept as a success. 


52 


In March 2006 the Regiment returned from deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Free- 
dom 04-06. In May, the Regiment officially celebrated its return home to Fort Carson. Joining 
the Regiment in its celebration was Mayor Najiim Abdullah Al-Jibouri of Tall Afar, Iraq, 
whose letters to President Bush (Appendix L) and General George Casey, Commander of 
Troops in Iraq, praised the troopers for their courage and bravery in freeing his city from the 
grip of insurgents. Mayor Najiim’s visit was highlighted by his moving speech during the cere- 
mony to add the names of the Regiment’s fallen Troopers from OIF 04-06 to the Regiment’s 
OIF Monument. 

After returning from block leave the Regiment began the Department of the Army’s Trans- 
formation program. This process resulted in relatively minor changes in the Regiment’s organ- 
izational structure. Air Defense Battery was inactivated on 5 June 2006 and 4th Squadron was 
reflagged as another unit. The 571st Medical Company (Air Ambulance) was inactivated on 15 
April 2006 after having served as part of the Brave Rifles family since July 1 996. 

Before returning from Iraq, the 3d ACR was notified that it would once again be moving to 
a new home base - Fort Hood, Texas. As the Regiment prepared to move to Fort Hood under 
the Base Realignment and Closure plan, many Troopers remained behind to form the nucleus of 
a new brigade belonging to the 4th Infantry Division. Others were moving on to new assign- 
ments or various military schools. Other members of the Regiment completed their enlistments 
and were discharged from the Army. As a result, the move to Fort Hood, would take place with 
only a small cadre. 

Fort Hood, Texas 

On 13 July, 2006, the 3d ACR uncased its colors at Fort Hood, opening a new chapter in the 
Regiment’s history. In conjunction with the uncasing ceremony, 1st Squadron, 1st Aviation 
Regiment was reflagged as 4th Squadron. 

When the Regiment moved from Fort Carson to Fort Hood, the greatest concern was person- 
nel strength since the Regiment brought only about 550 Soldiers down from Colorado. Return- 
ing the Regiment to normal strength wasn’t the only concern; many new pieces of equipment 
would be fielded at the same time. 

The Regiment arrived at Fort Hood with almost no equipment. The primary combat sys- 
tems, the Ml Abrams and M3 Bradleys, had been left in Kuwait when the Regiment returned to 
Fort Carson. This caused an intensive effort to re-equip the 3d ACR with all of the newest gear 
in the Army. Starting in September, 2nd Squadron fielded the first M1A2 SEPv2 tanks, the lat- 
est iteration of the extremely successful Abrams tank. In October, they received the Regiment’s 
first M3 A3 Block 2 Cavalry Fighting Vehicles. By March 2006 the Regiment was fully 
equipped with 123 tanks and 125 Bradleys. 

New Troopers began arriving immediately. 2nd Squadron received initial priority for 
Troopers with Military Occupational Specialties 19K and 19D, as they were the first unit sched- 
uled to undergo training on the new equipment. The influx of personnel remained constant 
enough to bring the Regiment to 99% of its authorized strength, allowing it to conduct the ex- 
tensive collective training required to prepare for the next CENTCOM deployment. 

In addition to these critical platforms, 4th Squadron was outfitted with the latest AH-64D 
Apache Longbow attack helicopters. As part of the transformation, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior 
helicopters of N, O and P Troops were replaced by two troops of Apaches. The Regiment also 
completed the fielding and certification of its indirect fire assets, both M109A6 Paladin 155mm 
howitzers and Ml 064 120mm mortar systems. 


53 


Inside the vehicles are the latest Command and Control systems and communications de- 
vices that bring the Regiment on-line with other “digitized” units. The Future Battle Command, 
Brigade and Below (FBCB2) system is now hard-wired into the fleet of tactical vehicles, pro- 
viding the commanders with extraordinary situational awareness with regards to both friendly 
and enemy forces. Combined with the extensive fielding of Army Battle Command Systems, 
from Maneuver Control Stations to monitor and control the ground squadrons, to the All-Source 
Analysis System, an intelligence data base structure designed to facilitate pattern and link 
analysis of enemy actions, the Regimental Commander now has unprecedented resources at his 
disposal to plan and execute missions. 


\ 



An Eagle Troop Ml 064 A3 mortar carrier fires a 120mm round at the Curry Mortar 
Complex at Fort Hood, Texas, 14 February 2007. 


54 


While waiting on their new equipment, the Troopers were able to refine their skills with 
their individual and crew served weapons, as well as Warrior Tasks and battle drills training. 
Once the Regiment had the personnel and equipment it needed, extensive training began. Be- 
ginning with Gunnery exercises in November and culminating in platoon and troop situational 
training exercises starting in January, the Regiment built the small, lethal, and agile teams, 
squads and platoons that will be so crucial to success if called upon to deploy. 

The capstone event is the Cavalry Table XIII Combined Arms Live Fire Exercise 
(CALFEX) that provides Troop and Company Commanders the opportunity to maneuver their 
units in a permissive range environment while simultaneously coordinating artillery, mortars, 
AH-64D Apache attack helicopters and Air force fixed wing close air support. This exercise 
brings all the assets of the 3d Armored Cavalry to bear against a simulated enemy armored at- 
tack across a notional international border. 

The Department of Defense announced in May, 2007, that the Regiment would deploy to 
Iraq in the fall of 2007. The Regiment conducted a Communications Exercise during the first 
week of May to exercise the new Command and Control systems, and construct the framework 
of information flow and control of maneuver formations. 

The 3d ACR, already poised for their National Training Center (NTC) rotation in June, used 
the news of another deployment to Iraq as motivation to ensure it would be ready by distin- 
guishing itself at NTC. The move to the NTC served as an exciting opportunity to exercise all 
of the new equipment in a multi-echelon, full-spectrum environment. This was the first time 
the Regiment deployed with all of its equipment and personal to a combat training center in 
preparation for their eventual deployment to Iraq. During the Regiments 07-09 rotation, offi- 
cials at NTC noted that of the 23 previous units who had trained there, it was the best rotation 
they had observed. 

Today, the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment continues to stand ready to deploy to the frontiers 
of freedom and defend the American people. 


55 



PART II: REGIMENTAL CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS 


Regimental Insignia 
Coat of Arms 

The Regimental Coat of Arms for the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment was originally ap- 
proved for the 3d Cavalry Regiment on 7 May 1921. The Coat of Arms was redesignated for 
the 3d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized on 28 February 1945. On 18 December 
1951, the Coat of Arms was once again redesignated, this time for the 3d Armored Cavalry 
Regiment. The Coat of Arms was amended to revise its symbolism on 27 June 1960. On 21 
February 1974 the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment was issued a formal Grant of Arms by the 
U.S. Army Institute of Heraldry. 

Blazon 


Shield: Vert (green), on a cross argent (silver) a tower of the field (green) on a chief or (gold) 
bend gules (red). 

Crest: On a wreath of the colors argent (silver) and vert (green) a trumpet palewise (vertical) 
or (gold). 


Motto: Brave Rifles! Veterans! You have been baptized in fire and blood and have 
come out steel! 




57 


Symbolism 

The Regiment’s original green facings on the uniform and its gold trumpet insignia are 
shown by the color of the shield and by the crest. The unit’s first engagement was the capture of 
Vera Cruz, and its continued with especially distinguished service throughout the campaign of 
1847 to the capture of Mexico City. Upon entering the city, it hoisted the Stars and Stripes over 
the national palace and displayed the regimental standard from the palace balcony, which drew 
from General Scott the statement, “Brave Rifles! Veterans! You have been baptized in fire and 
blood and come out steel.”* The campaign is shown by the cross for Vera Cruz and the tower in 
green (the Mexican color) for fortified Mexico City, the first and last engagements thereof. The 
chief, taken from the arms of Lorraine, commemorates the Regiment’s World War I service. 

*It has since been determined that General Scott actually made this statement in a speech to 
the Regiment at Contreras, rather than in Mexico City. See Appendix G for the full text of the 
speech. 

Regimental Distinctive Unit Insignia 

The original branch insignia of the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was a trumpet rather 
than the crossed sabers of the dragoon regiments, the only other mounted units in the Army at 
that time. This trumpet surmounts the crest on the Regimental Coat of Arms and appears on the 
present day Regimental Distinctive Unit Insignia, which is shown below. Affectionately known 
as the “Bug” due to its shape, this distinctive insignia was originally approved for the 3d 
Cavalry Regiment on 25 November 1922, and amended to revise its description on 5 January 
1923. On 18 December 1951, this insignia was redesignated for the 3d Armored Cavalry 
Regiment. 



Description 

A green enameled metal device 1 1/1 6th inches in width consisting of a gold colored metal 
trumpet, mouthpiece up, entwined vertically with a cord, surmounting a green enamel scroll 
arced on the left and the right and looped below the trumpet inscribed “BRAVE” on the 
viewer’s left and “RIFLES” on the viewer’s right, and the numeral “3” centered on the lower 
segment, all in gold colored metal. 


58 


Regimental Shoulder Sleeve Insignia 

The shoulder sleeve insignia for the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment was officially 
authorized by the Department of the Army on 12 June 1967. 



Description 

On a green disk with 1/8 inch border, 2 3 A inch diameter overall; a yellow trumpet bound 
with a gray cord and with mouthpiece up, in front of and extending above a green scroll; edged 
in yellow and bears the ‘BRAVE’ to the left of the trumpet in gray lettering, and ‘RIFLES’ to 
the right of the trumpet in gray lettering. The numeral ‘3’ in gray is centered below the trumpet 
bell. The device on the disk is similar to the Regimental Distinctive Unit insignia. The colors, 
green and yellow refer to the uniform with green facings and the gold trumpet insignia author- 
ized the Regiment in the uniform regulations of 1851. The words “BRAVE RIFLES” are de- 
rived from the accolade given to the Regiment by General Winfield Scott. The gray color of the 
letters and the numeral “3” simulates the color of steel and refers to the Regimental Motto, 
“Blood and Steel”, which is also derived from the Regimental Accolade. 

Symbolism 

The green scroll represents the green facings on the distinctive uniforms authorized for the 
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen in 1851. The uniform regulations of 1851 also authorized the 
trumpet as the unit insignia for the Regiment. The numeral “3” indicates that the 3d Armored 
Cavalry Regiment is descended from the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, being numbered 3 
because it was the third mounted unit in the Army, after the 1st and 2d Dragoons which became 
the 1st and 2d Cavalry Regiments in the reorganization of 1861 . 


59 


History of the Regimental Shoulder Sleeve Insignia 

The shoulder sleeve insignia was first worn by the members of the 3d Cavalry Group 
(Mechanized) of World War II. The Group never received any written authorization to develop 
and wear the patch. Instead, it received verbal permission of General George S. Patton, Jr., 
Commander of the Third U.S. Army. At the end of WWII the Regiment was required to 
remove its unauthorized shoulder sleeve insignia and wear in its place the shoulder patch of its 
next higher headquarters. However, the troopers continued to proudly wear their distinctive 
unit patches on an unofficial basis on the left breast pockets of their fatigue uniforms. The 
Department of the Army finally authorized the wear of distinctive shoulder sleeve insignia for 
separate brigades and regiments in 1967. 

The late General Polk (32nd Colonel) recalls: 

...The regiment never received any formal correspondence authorizing the... 
wear of a regimental patch. . . .Gen Patton asked me personally why no member of the 
regiment wore a patch... He then answered his own question by saying that he... 
supposed we did not enjoy particularly the wearing of a Third Army patch as it 
connoted support troops such as truck companies, engineer battalions and the like... 

I then asked his permission to design a patch incorporating the 3d Cavalry “Bug”, the 
regimental insignia worn on our dress uniform. ...He readily agreed. ...I have been 
challenged on occasion by officers with a statement that I am wearing an 
unauthorized patch. My reply has always been that the patch was authorized by 
General Patton personally and that I consider this good and sufficient 
authorization.... 

NOTE: IT IS A VIOLATION OF BOTH ARMY POLICY AND TITLE 18, USC, 
SECTION 701 TO ALTER MILITARY INSIGNIA FOR ANY REASON. Persons or 
organizations needing graphic examples of any 3d ACR insignia should use only the original 
designs rather than attempting to create their own versions. Approved versions may be 
obtained from the Third Cavalry Museum. 

Regimental Color 

The Regimental color is emerald green. This was the branch color of the Mounted Rifles 
and trimmed the distinctive uniforms worn from 1851 to 1861. 

Regimental Motto 

The Regimental Motto is “Blood and Steel”. It derives from the Regimental Accolade. 

Traditional Unit Designation 

The Traditional Unit Designation for the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment is “BRAVE 
RIFLES”. This designation, awarded to the Regiment for its many years of faithful and 
distinguished service, was officially granted to the Regiment by the Secretary of the Army on 
19 January 1977. 


60 


Other Customs and Traditions 


Regimental Abbreviation 

Since August of 1861, when using the numeral “3 ” in stead of the word “Third”, the proper 
form is “3d” with a small case “d”. An upper case “D” is never used , nor are “R ”, “r” or 
“3ACR”. 

Regimental Greeting 

The Regimental greeting is rendered by all enlisted troopers to officers and by junior 
officers to senior officers. The greeting is exchanged as follows: 

Junior individual exclaims: “Brave Rifles, Sir or (Ma ’am)! ” 

Senior individual responds: “Veterans!” 

Regimental Battle Cry 

“AI-EE-YAH! ” is the Regimental Battle Cry. It was adopted from the Indians and symbolizes 
the cry of the Cavalry Trooper charging into battle. It has evolved into a form of slang used by 
members of the Regiment, referring to or meaning anything and everything except “no” and is 
synonymous with HOO-AH! 

Regimental Accolade 

This phrase, which originated with General Winfield Scott, has been adopted by the 
Regiment as its Accolade and is also the source of the Regimental Motto and the Regimental 
Greeting (see Appendix G). It is normally rendered by all personnel prior to passing in review 
during parades, and prior to dismissal from some formations. It is rendered in the following 
manner: 

Regimental, Squadron, or Troop Commander: “Prepare for the Regimental Accolade! ” 
Squadron, Troop Commander or Platoon Leader: “Prepare to sound off! ” 

Regimental, Squadron, or Troop Commander: “Brave Rifles!” 

All personnel respond: “Veterans!” 

Regimental, Squadron, or Troop Commander: “Blood and Steel!” 

All personnel respond: “AH-EE-YAH! ” 

Regimental Standard 

The organizational flag of a mounted unit has traditionally been referred to as a “standard”, 
as opposed to the term “colors” which has been used to refer to organizational flags of foot 
units. The regimental standard is symbolic of branch, history, and the spirit and tradition of the 
organization. The standard and its companion National Colors are displayed in the Regimental 
Commander’s office, and are carried in all Regimental ceremonies and formations. 

When a new standard is issued, the old one is retired from service and placed in the Third 
Cavalry Museum. All the Regimental Standards that are known to exist are part of the 
Museum’s collection, beginning with the second Standard, which dates from 1848. The first 
Standard was presented to Congress at the conclusion of the Mexican War and has since 
disappeared. 


61 


Possession of colors and guidons by private individuals and organizations is a violation of 
Federal Law 10 USC 4565. Giving a flag as a memento constitutes a felony. A cow of 10 
USC 4565 is available at the JAG office. 

Regimental Pass in Review 

The command to pass the Regiment, or any element thereof, in review during a parade 
ceremony is given in the following manner: 

Reviewing officer: “Brave Rifles - pass in review!” 

Regimental Saber of Command 

The Saber of Command has traditionally represented the authority of the Regimental 
Commander. At a Regimental change of command ceremony, the Saber of Command is passed 
from the outgoing Commander to the incoming Commander, thus signifying the 
relinquishment, transfer, and assumption of command of the Regiment. The Saber of 
Command is displayed in the Regimental Commander’s office. 

Command Lineage 

It is customary for the Regimental Commander and the Regimental Command Sergeant 
Major to sign all correspondence in such a manner as to indicate their number in chronological 
succession of command or responsibility, e.g. “68th Colonel”, or XIVth Command Sergeant 
Major”. 

Order of the Spur 

The Spur Program was created to recognize those Troopers and officers who have 
demonstrated a level of professional expertise which exceeds that expected of other soldiers in 
the Army. The quest for admittance to the Order of the Spur during peacetime, ending with the 
Spur Ride, is an essential part of the development of all cavalrymen. Successful completion of 
the Spur program results in the award of a pair of spurs and membership in the Order. While 
participation is strictly voluntary, spurs are highly sought after and are a visible symbol of the 
qualities of professional excellence that all cavalrymen strive to achieve. Spurs are also earned 
by virtue of having served in combat with a cavalry unit. 

Order of the Garter 

When a newly assigned officer or senior NCO is hailed by his unit, his lady is also 
welcomed and enrolled into the Order of the Garter. The lady receives a yellow garter with 
blue ribbon and a certificate of enrollment. 


62 


Organization Day 

Each year, the Regiment celebrates its anniversary with a series of activities and events 
intended to recall its history, customs, and traditions. The Regiment first celebrated 
Organization Day on 19 May 1921. 19 May was the day on which the Regiment of Mounted 
Riflemen was authorized by an Act of Congress in 1845. Though on 14 July 1967, the 
Department of the Army officially recognized 12 October as Unit Day for the 3d ACR in 
recognition of its formal organization at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri on 12 October 1846, the 
anniversary is usually celebrated in May. 

The celebration typically includes a field day in which units of the Regiment compete 
against each other in a series of military and athletic competitions, a Regimental Ball, and a 
Regimental formation. At this formation, the Regimental Commander may give a short address 
to the troops, followed by a summation of the regimental history, battle honors, and Medal of 
Honor recipients. 

Reporting for Duty and Leaving the Regiment 

Immediately after an officer or senior NCO is assigned to the Regiment, it is customary for 
a letter of welcome to be dispatched from the Regiment to the individual. In the case of an 
officer, the letter is sent by the Regimental Commander, while the letter of welcome for an 
NCO is sent by the Regimental Command Sergeant Major. These letters usually enclose such 
information as may be desirable for orienting the individual and facilitating his or her 
immediate adjustment to probable new duties and new station. 

All new officers normally report to the Regimental Adjutant and then are interviewed at an 
appropriate time by the Regimental Commander, who will orient new officers as to the mission 
and organization of the Regiment. When departing the Regiment, whether for civilian life or a 
new duty assignment, it is customary for all officers to pay their respects in person to the 
Regimental Commander. 

Change of Command 

A change of command is a formal ceremony conducted within the Regiment whenever a 
new commander takes command of a unit. Change of command ceremonies for troop/company/ 
battery size units are normally conducted at squadron formations. A Squadron Change of 
command is usually performed at a squadron formation and when the Regiment changes 
commanders, the entire Regiment is usually formed for the occasion. 

After the ceremony, a reception is held so that guests and members of the command may 
congratulate the new commander and his or her spouse. As soon as possible following his 
assumption of command, the new Regimental Commander addresses all assigned members of 
the Regiment in separate assemblies, usually at Squadron level. 

Regimental March 

The official march of the Regiment is “ Brave Rifles ”, by C. Campagna. This march was 
composed in 1937 and dedicated to the Regiment during the command of Kenyon A. Joyce, 
26th Colonel, while the Regiment was stationed at Ft. Myer, Virginia. The march is 
customarily played at all Regimental ceremonies and formations where the Regiment passes in 
review. 


63 


Regimental Song 

The Regimental Song is “Green Grow the Rushes, Ho!” The exact circumstances by which 
the Regiment selected this song as its very own have been lost to history. It is tradition, though 
not established fact, that the term "Gringo", a slang term often used by the people of Latin 
America when referring to Americans, originated from this song. Supposedly the Mexican 
populace heard the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen singing while on the march during its 
campaigns in the Mexican War and derived the word "Gringo" from the phrase "Green Grow". 
The new label was first applied to the Mounted Riflemen, then to all American troops, 
eventually becoming universally applied to all Americans. 

All the verses of this song as sung by the Regiment have been lost to history. The original 
twelve verses, dating back to the Middle Ages, are still in existence, but they are basically 
religious in nature, and soldiers have never been known to be very pious, particularly when it 
has come to composing and singing verses for their marching and drinking songs. In all 
probability, the original words parodied Bums’ lyrics who’s choms was: “The sweetest hours 
that ere’ I spent were spent among the lasses, O!” 

Dining In 

Approximately once a quarter, the officers and selected NCOs of the Regiment meet for a 
Dining In or Formal Mess Night. Instituted as a custom in the 3d ACR during the 1950’s, the 
Dining In provides an opportunity for the officers and NCOs to participate in the ceremony and 
tradition integral to the life of a cavalry unit. 

Regimental Toast 

The Regimental Toast is customarily offered by the Regimental Commander to the officers 
of the Regiment at a Formal Mess Night. The origin of this toast dates from the 1960's when 
the Regiment was stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany. The author is unknown. The 
Regimental Toast is given in the following manner: 

I propose a toast: 

To the Brave Rifles who stormed Chapultepec for General Winfield Scott, who 
were baptized in fire and blood and came out steel and who raised the colors of 
victory over President Santa Ana's Palace. 

To the Mounted Riflemen who rode westward from Missouri to the Pacific, 
opening and protecting the Oregon Trail and securing the frontiers of our 
advancing civilization. 

To the Cavalry veteran who protected the Texans, fought bravely in the Indian 
Wars, and rode in the bitter fighting of the War Between the States. 

To the Cavalryman who fought victoriously in Cuba, in the Philippines and in 
France during WWI. 


64 


To the Mechanized trooper who, as a "Ghost" of Patton’s Army, provided the 
sharp point to the spear which pierced the heart of Germany. 

And too, to the Armored Cavalryman who was rushed to Europe to help tip the 
balance of force against the Cold War threats of our country's enemies. 

To the Armored Cavalryman who rushed to protect Saudi Arabia and liberate 
Kuwait in only 100 hours and who brought peace to war-tom Bosnia. 

To the Armored Cavalryman who returned again and again to the plains of Meso- 
potamia to free the Iraqi people from the tyranny of global terrorism. 

Yes, I propose a toast to many men— many Brave Rifles who are as one. I pro- 
pose a toast to that dedicated fighting professional, the Trooper of the 3d Ar- 
mored Cavalry Regiment. 

Births in the Regiment 

When a baby is bom to an officer of the Regiment, the event is commemorated by the pres- 
entation of a silver baby cup appropriately inscribed and engraved with the Regimental Distinc- 
tive Unit Insignia. 

Deaths in the Regiment 

When the Regiment is in garrison and one of its officers or troopers passes away, memorial 
services are held in the Chapel by the unit to which the individual was assigned. The Squadron 
Chaplain conducts the services and honors are rendered according to the rank of the deceased. 
It is customary for the Regimental Commander, Regimental Command Sergeant Major and the 
respective Squadron Commander and Squadron Command Sergeant Major to be in attendance. 

When the Regiment is engaged in combat operations, away from its home base, besides the 
services conducted in theater, services are conducted in the home base chapel by the rear de- 
tachment and installation chaplains office. Maximum participation at these services is encour- 
aged to show support for the members of the Regiment while they are away. 


65 


Regimental Grace 

The origin of this blessing is unknown, having been lost to history. It is normally presented 
by the Regimental Chaplain prior to the serving of the dinner at a Dining in. It reads as follows: 

Most Gracious God, who hast enriched thy creation with many blessings, we 
now evoke Thy presence with all Brave Rifles gathered about these tables. May 
the food so plenteously supplied to us cause us to renew our expressions of 
Thanksgiving to Thee. May the strength received from this food nourish our 
spiritual body. 

Bless those who have prepared this food and those about to partake of it, in the 
name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. AMEN. 

Regimental Prayer 

The author of the original Regimental Prayer is unknown. It is normally presented by the 
Regimental Chaplain at the conclusion of a dining in. The prayer was revised in 1965 by E. A. 
Simon, the Regimental Chaplain, to read as follows: 

Almighty and Eternal God, our Heavenly Father, we come to thee now through 
thy Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ, asking thee to hear and honor our prayer. We 
thank thee, our Father, for thy continual guidance over the destiny of our Regi- 
ment of Mounted Riflemen and pray that each trooper will faithfully follow thy 
direction throughout his life. 

We beseech thee to help us always to be worthy of those glorious achievements, 
inherited from our forefathers and which are now entrusted to us. 

With thy divine assistance, may we carry our colors with courage, honor, and 
distinction. 

We ask thee to guide our leaders, bless our troopers and cause all of us who serve 
thee to be faithful to thy name. In times of combat, may our arms be victorious 
over our enemies, so that a just and lasting peace may come to the world. 

And Lord, when our final Taps is sounded, may each Brave Rifleman, who knew and served 
thee in this life, be called before thy throne to receive their eternal award. These things we ask 
in the name of Jesus Christ, our Lord and Savior. AMEN 


66 


Weddings in the Regiment 

At wedding ceremonies for officers of the Regiment, it is customary for an arch of cavalry 
sabers to be formed by the groomsmen outside the chapel entrance, under which the newlyweds 
pass when departing the chapel. It is also customary for the officer and his new bride to be pre- 
sented with a wedding tray inscribed with the Regimental Distinctive Unit Insignia. NOTE: the 
Third Cavalry Museum does not provide the sabers for these ceremonies. 

Holidays 

On New Year's Day it is customary for officers of the Regiment and their spouses to call on 
their respective Squadron Commander and the Regimental Commander at their quarters at a 
specified time. On Thanksgiving and Christmas, all dining facilities hold an Open House for 
officers, troopers and their families and guests. 

Lucky Sixteen 

When the 3d Cavalry joined the 2d and 1 1th in the Cold War General Defense Plan of 
Europe, the regiments became known as the "Lucky 16" (the total of the regimental numbers 2, 
3, and 1 1 .) Whenever two of the Lucky 1 6 Regiments are in the same location the Lucky 16 
convenes in a social setting to renew old friendships and strengthen comradeship. 

REGIMENTAL AWARDS 

There are several types of Regimental Awards given to officers, troopers and families of the 
Regiment. 

Order of the Brave Rifles 

Upon departing the Regiment, officers are permanently enrolled as Troopers in the Order of 
the Brave Rifles. Under exceptional circumstances, distinguished civilian and military officers 
of the United States and foreign countries may be enrolled in the Order of the Brave Rifles as 
the "Bravest Rifle". 

Honorary Squadron of Mounted Riflemen 

The Honorary Squadron of Mounted Riflemen recognizes significant contributions to the 
Regiment. The award consists of a mounted certificate awarded at a Punch Bowl Ceremony in 
the Regimental Conference Room. The recipient will have his/her name annotated in the rolls 
of the Honorary Squadron of Mounted Riflemen during the ceremony. 

Regimental Coin of Excellence 

The 3d Armored Cavalry Regimental Coin of Excellence provides special recognition from 
the Regimental Commander or Commander Sergeant Major for outstanding training, duty per- 
formance, or special activity. Individuals are recognized on the spot for their outstanding ef- 
forts. Anyone associated with the Regiment is eligible, regardless of rank, specialty skill, or 
duty position and it may be awarded at any time and any place. 


67 


Certificate of Recognition 

Troopers departing the Regiment who have distinguished themselves during their period of 
service and who are recommended by their Commanders, are eligible to receive a Certificate of 
Recognition from the Regimental Commander. Awards are also presented to those individuals 
selected as Trooper and NCO of the Quarter and Trooper and NCO of the Year. The Regimen- 
tal Command Sergeant Major oversees selection of the recipients. 

Lady of the Brave Rifles 

The lady of a departing officer is accorded the honor of being enrolled as a Lady of the 
Brave Rifles. This honor recognizes her contribution in support of the Regiment through par- 
ticipation in family support groups and community activities on behalf of the Regiment. 


Accolade to a Cav Lady 

Ai-ee-yah!'s the cry of 
The 3d Armored Cav, 

A reminder of pride 
In the history we have. 

So hold your head high 
You ’re a part of this clan, 

A Faithful Cav Lady 
Who stands by her man. 

You ’ve paid your dues, 

Lonely nights and long days, 
The wife of a soldier 
Seldom gets praise. 

This memento is given 
With love ’s lusty yell, 
Ai-ee-yah! Brave Rifle! 
Godspeed and Farewell! 


68 


Appendix A 


TRANSCRIPTION OF THE ACT OF CONGRESS 
ESTABLISHING THE REGIMENT OF MOUNTED RIFLEMEN 

The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment was originally organized and equipped as the Regiment 
of Mounted Riflemen. The Regiment was authorized by an act passed by the 29th Congress of 
the United States on 19 May 1845. This act, entitled "An Act to provide for raising a regiment 
of mounted riflemen and for establishing military stations on the route to Oregon," is repro- 
duced here in its entirety: 


Twenty-ninth Congress of the United States; 

At the first session, 

Begun and held at the City of Washington, the first day of December, one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-five. 

AN ACT 

To provide for raising a regiment of mounted riflemen, and for establishing military stations on 
the route to Oregon. 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled. 

“That there shall be raised one regiment of mounted riflemen, to be composed and organized as 
follows, to wit ... one colonel, one lieutenant colonel, one major, one quartermaster-sergeant, 
two chief buglers, and one adjutant who shall be a lieutenant, one sergeant major, one chief mu- 
sician, and ten companies; each company shall consist of one captain, one first lieutenant, one 
second lieutenant, (exclusive of the adjutant lieutenant), four sergeants, four corporals, two bu- 
glers, one farrier, one blacksmith and sixty-four privates. 

“Section 2. And be it further enacted. That the officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, 
and privates shall be entitled to the same pay and emoluments as are allowed to dragoons, and 
that the farrier and blacksmith shall receive the same pay and allowances as are allowed to an 
artificer of artillery. 

“Section 3. And be it further enacted. That the said regiment of riflemen shall be subject to the 
rules of war, and shall be recruited in the same manner as other troops in the service of the 


69 


United States, and with same conditions and limitations; and the officers, noncommissioned 
officers, musicians, privates, blacksmiths and farriers shall be entitled to the same provisions 
for wounds and disabilities, and the same provisions for widows and children, and the same al- 
lowances and benefits in every respect, as are allowed to other troops composing the army of 
the United States. 

“Section 4. And be it further enacted. That the non-commissioned officers, musicians, and pri- 
vates of said regiment, when employed in constructing fortifications, making surveys, cutting 
roads or performing other labor, shall be allowed fifteen cents a day each with a commutation in 
money for the extra spirit ration, as provided by the act of the second of March, One Thousand 
Eight Hundred and Nineteen entitled "An act to regulate the pay of the army when on fatigue 
duty". 

“Section 5. And be it further enacted. That the sum of seventy-six thousand five hundred dol- 
lars, for mounting and equipping said regiment, be, and the same hereby is appropriated, and a 
sum be paid out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. 

“Section 6. And be it further enacted. That a sum not exceeding three thousand dollars, out of 
any moneys in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, be, and the same hereby is appropri- 
ated, to defray the expenses of each military station or defense which the President may deem 
necessary on the line of communication with Oregon; and a sum not exceeding two thousand 
dollars for making compensation to the Indian tribes which may own or possess the ground on 
which the said station may be erected, and for each station.” 


70 


Appendix B 


CERTIFICATES OF LINEAGE AND HONORS 

The certificates attesting to a unit’s lineage and honors are the most important documents 
relating to the history of that unit. Issued by the Department of the Army's Center of Military 
History, they are the unit's birth certificate, its deed to organizational properties, and its service 
record. While the original copies are in the Regimental Museum, the information contained on 
them has been reproduced here to aid in tracing the history of the Regiment. 

The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment has received credit for participation in forty campaigns 
during the course of its history. It has been awarded a battle streamer for each of the forty 
campaigns. These streamers are affixed to the top of the staff on which the Regimental Stan- 
dard is carried. 

Lineage 

Constituted 19 May 1846 in the Regular Army as the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. 
Organized 12 October 1846 at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. Redesignated 3 August 1861 as 3d 
United States Cavalry. 

Inactivated 15 July 1942 at Fort Benning, Georgia; personnel and equipment transferred to 3d 
Armored Regiment (see annex). Redesignated 18 January 1943 as 3d Cavalry, Mechanized. 
Activated 15 March 1943 at Camp Gordon, Georgia. 

Regiment broken up 3 November 1943 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as Head- 
quarters and Headquarters Troop, 3d Cavalry Group, Mechanized and the 3d and 43d Cavalry 
Reconnaissance Squadrons, Mechanized. 

Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 3d Cavalry Group, Mechanized, inactivated 22 Decem- 
ber 1945 at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey. Activated 26 February 1946 at Fort George G. Meade, 
Maryland. Redesignated 5 November 1948 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d 
Armored Cavalry; organization of the remainder of 3d Armored Cavalry completed 3 Novem- 
ber 1948 by redefinition of elements of 3d and 43d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadrons, Mecha- 
nized and by reconstruction, redefinition, and activation of certain other elements of the 3d 
Cavalry which had been inactivated or demobilized 1921-1928. 

3d, 777th, and 21st Tank Battalions (see annex) consolidated with 3d Armored Cavalry 
8 January 1951. (Battalions and Companies redesignated Squadrons and Troops, 1 June 1960). 


71 


Annex 


3d Armored Regiment constituted 11 July 1942 in the Army of the United States and assigned 
to 10th Armored Division. Activated 15 July 1942 at Fort Benning, Georgia with personnel 
and equipment from 3d Cavalry. 

Regiment broken up and its elements reorganized and redesignated 20 September 1943 as fol- 
lows: 3d Armored Regiment (less 1st and 3d Battalions, Band, Maintenance, Service, and Re- 
connaissance Companies) as 3d Tank Battalion. 1st Battalion as 777th Tank Battalion and re- 
lieved from assignment to 10th Armored Division; 3d Battalion as 21st Tank Battalion; Recon- 
naissance Company, as Troop D, 90th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized 
(separate lineage); Band and Maintenance and Service Companies disbanded. 

Above Battalions inactivated as follows: 3d Tank Battalion 13 October 1945 at Camp Patrick 
Henry, Virginia. 777th Tank Battalion 24 October 1945 at Camp San Luis Obispo, California. 
21st Tank Battalion 19 October 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts. 

3d, 777th, and 21st Tank Battalions consolidated 8 January 1951 with 3d Armored Cavalry; 
concurrently, 3d and 21st Tank Battalions relieved from assignment to 10th Armored Division. 


72 


Appendix C 


CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDITS 

Regimental 


Mexican War 

Vera Cruz 
Cerro Gordo 
Contreras 
Churubusco 
Chapultepec 
Vera Cruz 1847 

Indian Wars 

Comanches 

Cheyennes 

Utes 

Little Big Horn 
Texas 1856 
New Mexico 1 857 
New Mexico 1858 
New Mexico 1860 
New Mexico 1 861 
New Mexico 1867 
New Mexico 1869 
Oklahoma 1868 
Arizona 1870 
Arizona 1871 
Arizona 1882 

Operation Iraqi Freedom 

Iraq 


Civil War 

Chattanooga 
New Mexico 1861 
New Mexico 1862 
Alabama 1863 
Tennessee 1863 
Arkansas 1864 

War With Spain 

Santiago 

Philippine Insurrection 

Luzon 1899 
Luzon 1900 
San Fabian 
San Isidro 

World War I 

Without inscription 

World War II 

Northern France 
Rhineland 
Ardennes-Alsace 
Central Europe 

Southwest Asia 

Defense of Saudi Arabia 
Liberation and Defense of 
Kuwait 


73 


Troops Entitled to Additional Campaign 
Participation Credits (streamers) 



TROOP A 

Texas 1855 

New Mexico 1859 

Philippine Islands 1901 

Pecos River, 7 January 1859 

Santa Teresa Mountains, 3 and 18 December 1859 

Near Parar, Ilocos Norte, 21 February 1901 

TROOP B 

Nebraska 1872 

Loupe River, 26 April 1872 

TROOP C 

South Dakota 1877 

Hay Creek, near Deadwood, 23 February 1877 

TROOP F 

Texas 1869 

Sangre Canyon, 22 April 1869 

Near San Augustine Pass, 15 August 1869 

Guadalupe Mountains, 18 November 18 November 1869 

Sanguinaria Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, 26 December 1869 

TROOP I 

Molino del Rey 

Mexico, 8 September 1847 


74 


UNIT AWARDS 


Regimental 

Distinguished Unit Citation, embroidered BASTOGNE (The name of this award was changed to 
“The Presidential Unit Citation” on 3 November 1966.) 

3d Tank Battalion, 10th Armored Division (less Company C) and Company C, 21st Tank Bat- 
talion, 10th Armored Division “for extraordinary heroism in military operations against an 
armed enemy.” These units earned this award for their part in the defense of Bastogne, Belgium 
from 18 to 27 December, 1944 during the “Battle of the Bulge”. These units were made up of 
elements of the 3d (horse) Cavalry that were transferred to the 3d Armored Regiment in July 
1942. They were consolidated with the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment on 8 January 1951. 

Belgian Croix de Guerre (1940) With Palm, embroidered BASTOGNE 

This decoration was awarded by the Belgian Government to the 3d Tank Battalion, 10th Ar- 
mored Division (less Company C) and Company C, 21st Tank Battalion, 10th Armored Divi- 
sion for there part in the defense of Bastogne, Belgium from 18 to 27 December, 1944 These 
units were made up of elements of the 3d (horse) Cavalry and transferred to the 3d Armored 
Regiment in July 1942. They were consolidated with the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment on 8 
January 1951. Only those soldiers who actually participated in this battle are authorized to 
wear this award on their uniforms. 

Valorous Unit Award for Operation Iraqi Freedom I embroidered AL ANBAR PROVINCE 2003 

By direction of the Secretary of the Army, the Valorous Unit Award is awarded to: 

3d ARMORED CAVALRY 

for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy of the United States: 

During the period 25 April 2003 to 1 8 September 2003, the 3d Armored Cavalry 
displayed extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy while in support of 
Operation Iraqi Freedom. The unit performed an economy of force mission stretching 
across expansive terrain much larger than the Regiment is doctrinally designed to 
secure, encompassing an area more than 120,000 square kilometers in size and 
containing a population of over 1 million residents. The Regiment performed tasks 
ranging across the entire spectrum of combat operations in the area of the "Sunni 
Triangle," while maintaining the largest assigned area of responsibility and functioning 
as the smallest maneuver unit directly subordinate to Combined Joint Task Force-7. 

The unit accepted the surrender of Iraqi forces remaining in zone and then attacked 
former regime loyalists in what proved to be the most insurgency-plagued area of the 
country. The unit continued to establish order among a population whose government 
had collapsed and began rebuilding much of the infrastructure of the A1 Anbar 
province. Battling summer conditions in a brutal desert environment, the unit 
maintained high morale, achieved highly extraordinary feats for a unit of its size, and 
upheld the proud legacy of traditions set by cavalry units long ago. The 3d Armored 
Cavalry's performance of duty reflects great credit upon the unit and the United States 
Army. 


75 


Troops 


Present day Troop E (Troop B, 43d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron in WWII): 

Streamer, French Croix de Guerre (WWII) with Silver-Gilt Star, embroidered MOSELLE (see 
below) 

Troop B, 43d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mechanized) 

French Croix De Guerre With Silver-Gilt Star, awarded under Decision No. 247, 15 July 1946, 
by the President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, with the following 
citation: 

“A magnificent shock troop, eager and of wonderful courage. It particularly distinguished itself 
on 5 November 1944, at the capture of Berg, which defended the crossing of the Moselle. It 
attacked, without artillery preparation, positions strongly held by a trained and fanatical enemy. 
In spite of gunfire which was annihilating its ranks, this unit gave proof of wonderful dash and, 
aided by tanks, captured the position. It held this position despite terrific bombardment. In the 
course of the mopping up, it took 17 prisoners.” 

Present day Troop K (Troop C, 3d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron in WWII): 

Streamer, French Croix de Guerre (WWII) with Palm, embroidered LORRAINE (see below) 
Troop C, 3d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mechanized) 

French Croix De Guerre With Palm, awarded under Decision No. 267, 22 July 1946, by the 
President of the provisional Government of the French Republic, with the following citation: 

“A unit skilled in maneuvers, full of dash, which stood out by the bravery of its fighters. It dis- 
tinguished itself particularly at Mars-la-Tour, where an enemy airdrome was recaptured with a 
considerable quantity of fuel, at Saint Private and Sainte Marie, by doing effective reconnais- 
sance work for the 7th Armored Division, then in the capture of Metz, by neutralizing on the 
Vionville-Rezonville-Gravelotte-Rezerieulles Line, an important number of emplacements of 
heavy arms and again by bringing back valuable information about the enemy. By this series of 
daring and deep reconnaissance actions during the months of August and September 1 944, this 
unit made it possible for the third U. S. Army to advance rapidly across France up to the 
Moselle.” 


76 


HHT, 4th Squadron and Troops N, O, P, Q, R, S, T: 

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer Embroidered SOUTHWEST ASIA 

By direction of the Secretary of the Army, the Meritorious Unit Commendation is awarded to: 
4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry for exceptionally meritorious conduct in performance of 
outstanding service: 

4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry distinguished itself by outstanding meritorious performance 
for the period 23 September 1990 to 5 April 1991, while engaged in combat with Iraqi forces. 
The 4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry screened the Easter flank of the XVIII Airborne Corps 
and maintained contact with the VII Corps. Throughout the campaign, units of the 4th Squad- 
ron were in continuous contact with the enemy as the Regiment plunged over 350 kilometers 
deep into Iraq and the heart of the Republican Guard. In all actions and engagements, the 
troopers of the 4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry displayed the true Cavalry spirit, courage, 
and determination to find and defeat the enemy. The accomplishments of the 4th Squadron, 3d 
Armored Cavalry reflects great credit upon themselves and the United States Army. 

Army Superior Unit Award, Streamer Embroidered 1994 

By direction of the Secretary of the Army, the Army Superior Unit Award is awarded to: 

4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry for outstanding meritorious performance during peacetime 
of a difficult and challenging mission: 

During the period 27 June 1994 to 1 December 1994, the 4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry 
distinguished itself by excelling in sustainment and training functions while simultaneously 
planning for and executing major force modernization actions. Challenged with a National 
Training Center rotation and the continued testing of several new air defense command, control, 
communication and intelligence systems, the 4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry executed flaw- 
less planning and coordination with a spirit, competence and professionalism unequaled in to- 
day’s Army. The 4th Squadron, 3d Armored cavalry’s performance of these extraordinarily 
challenging missions, under arduous circumstances, is indicative of the outstanding devotion to 
duty, esprit de corps, selfless service and expertise of its members. The 4th Squadron, 3d Ar- 
mored Cavalry’s testing of the forward area air defense systems command, control, communi- 
cation and intelligence system significantly impacted upon the entire Army. The outstanding 
accomplishments of the members of the 4th Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry are in keeping with 
the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon themselves and the United 
States Army.” 


77 





















































































































































































Appendix D 


REGIMENTAL MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS 



The Medal of Honor awarded to Corporal Charles A. Bessey. 


Fichter, Hermann 

Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, 5 May 1871. 

Kilmartin, John 

Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, 5 May 1871. 

Miller, Daniel H. 

Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, 5 May 1871. 

Mott, John 

Sergeant, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, 5 May 1871. 

Yount, John P. 

Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, 5 May 1871. 


79 



Cody, William F. 

Civilian Scout, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebraska, 26 April 1872. 
(Medal rescinded by Act of Congress 21 April, 1916. Reinstated 
per findings of EEO Review Board 12 June 1989). 

Foley, John H. 

Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebraska, 26 April 1872. 

Strayer, William H. 

Private, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebraska, 26 April 1872. 

Vokes, Leroy FL 

First Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebraska, 26 April 1872. 

Glavinski, Albert 

Blacksmith, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in ac- 
tion at Powder River, Montana, 17 March 1876. 

McGann, Michael A. 

First Sergeant, Company F, 3d U. S. Cavalry. For gallantry 
in action at Rosebud Creek, Montana, 17 June 1876. 

Murphy, Jeremiah 

Private, Company M, 3d U. S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Powder River, Montana, 17 June 1876. 

Robinson, Joseph 

First Sergeant, Company D, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Rosebud Creek, Montana, 17 June 1876. 

Shingle, John H. 

First Sergeant, Company I, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Rosebud Creek, Montana, 17 June 1876. 

Snow, Elmer A. 

Trumpeter, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Rosebud Creek, Montana, 17 June 1876. 

Kirkwood, John A. 

Sergeant, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Slim Buttes, Dakota Territory, 9 September 1876. 

Smith, Robert 

Private, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Slim Buttes, Dakota Territory, 9 September 1876. 

Bessey, Charles A. 

Corporal, Company A, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action 
near Elkhom Creek, Wyoming, 13 January 1877. 

Lewis, William A. 

Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at 
Bluff Station, Wyoming, 20-22 January 1877. 


80 


Morgan, George H. 


2d Lieutenant, Company K, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Big Dry Wash, Arizona 17 July 1882. 


Taylor, Charles 

First Sergeant, Company D, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in 
action at Big Dry Wash, Arizona, 17 July 1882. 

Walker, Allen 

Private, Troop C, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action in 
Texas, 30 December 1891. 

Heard, John W. 

1st Lieutenant, 3d U.S. Cavalry. For gallantry in action at the 
mouth of the Manimani River, West of Bahia Honda, Cuba, 23 
July 1898. 


81 




Appendix E 


REGIMENTAL COMMANDERS 


Persifor Frazer Smith 
William Wing Loring 
John Smith Simonson 
Marshall Saxe Howe 
William Nicholson Grier 
Joseph Jones Reynolds 
Thomas Casimer Devin 
Washington Lafayette Elliot 
Albert Gallatin Brackette 
Albert Payson Morrow 
Anson Mills 
Guy Vemor Henry 
Samuel Baldwin Marks Young 
Wirt Davis 

Albert Emmett Woodson 
Joseph Haddox Dorst 
Hugh Lennox Scott 
Augustus Perry Blocksom 
Francis Henry Beach 
Lloyd Milton Brett 


1st Colonel 

1846-1857 

2nd Colonel 

1857-1860 

3rd Colonel 

1860-1861 

4th Colonel 

1862-1866 

5th Colonel 

1866-1870 

6th Colonel 

1870-1877 

7th Colonel 

1877-1878 

8th Colonel 

1878-1879 

9th Colonel 

1879-1891 

10th Colonel 

1891-1892 

1 1th Colonel 

1892-1895 

12th Colonel 

1895-1897 

1 3th Colonel 

1897-1900 

14th Colonel 

1900-1901 

1 5th Colonel 

1901-1903 

1 6th Colonel 

1903-1911 

17th Colonel 

1911-1913 

1 8th Colonel 

1913-1917 

19th Colonel 

1917-1918 

20th Colonel 

1919-1920 


83 


William Cannon Rivers 
Hamilton Smith Hawkins 
William Jefferson Glasgow 
Guy Vemor Henry Jr. 

Harry Newton Cootes 
Kenyon Ashe Joyce 
Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright 
George Smith Patton, Jr. 
William Whitelain Gordon 
Howell M. Estes 
Frederick Weed Drury 
James H. Polk 
Walter Burnside 
C. H. Valentine 
Charles A. Sheldon 
Samuel L. Myers 
James Owen Curtis, Jr. 

Clay F. Bridgewater 
Edward W. Williams 
Clyde L. Layne 
William A. Hamberg 
Robert Edward McCabe 
Douglas P. Frazier 


21st Colonel 

1920-1923 

22nd Colonel 

1923-1926 

23rd Colonel 

1926-1927 

24th Colonel 

1927-1930 

25th Colonel 

1930-1933 

26th Colonel 

1933-1936 

27th Colonel 

1936-1938 

28th Colonel 

1938-1940 

29th Colonel 

1940-1941 

30th Colonel 

1941-1942 

31st Colonel 

1943-1944 

32nd Colonel 

1944-1945 

33rd Colonel 

1946 

34th Colonel 

1946-1947 

35th Colonel 

1947-1949 

36th Colonel 

1949-1951 

37th Colonel 

1951-1952 

38th Colonel 

1952-1953 

39th Colonel 

1954 

40th Colonel 

1954-1955 

41st Colonel 

1955-1956 

42nd Colonel 

1956-1957 

43rd Colonel 

1957-1958 


84 


Emmet Robert White 
John B. Maxwell, III 
Donald H. Cowles 
John R. Barclay 
William J. Boehmer 
Thomas J. Hanifen 
Gerald V. Reberry 
Sidney Hack 
Kenneth W. Kock 
Walter W. Plummer 
David K. Doyle 
John M. Shea 
Grail L. Brookshire 
Joseph C. Lutz 
Richard G. Cardillo 
William A. Fitzgerald, Jr. 
James B. Taylor 
James M. Lyle 
Jarret J. Robertson 
Douglas H. Starr 
Robert R. Ivany 
Robert M. Young 
Robert Wilson 


44th Colonel 

1958-1960 

45th Colonel 

1960-1961 

46th Colonel 

1961-1963 

47th Colonel 

1963-1964 

48th Colonel 

1964-1966 

49th Colonel 

1966-1967 

50th Colonel 

1967-1968 

51st Colonel 

1968-1970 

52nd Colonel 

1970-1972 

53rd Colonel 

1972-1973 

54th Colonel 

1973-1975 

55th Colonel 

1975 

56th Colonel 

1975-1977 

57th Colonel 

1977-1978 

58th Colonel 

1978-1980 

59th Colonel 

1980-1983 

60th Colonel 

1983-1985 

61st Colonel 

1985-1987 

62nd Colonel 

1987-1989 

63rd Colonel 

1989-1991 

64th Colonel 

1991-1993 

65th Colonel 

1993-1994 

66th Colonel 

1994-1996 


85 


Martin E. Dempsey 

67th Colonel 

1996-1998 

Christopher L. Baggot 

68th Colonel 

1998-2000 

Anthony W. Harriman 

69th Colonel 

2000-2002 

David A. Teeples 

70th Colonel 

2002-2004 

H. R. McMaster 

71st Colonel 

2004-2006 

Michael A. Bills 

72nd Colonel 

2006- 


86 


Appendix F 


REGIMENTAL COMMAND SERGEANTS MAJOR 


Ambrose R. Winans 

I RCSM 

1972-1974 

Charles Bolling 

II RCSM 

1974-1975 

Jacinto Vasquez 

III RCSM 

1975-1978 

Elton R. Allen 

IV RCSM 

1978-1980 

Jack H. Schmidt 

V RCSM 

1980-1982 

Guenter H. Heibich 

VI RCSM 

1982-1984 

Harvey L. Reed 

VII RCSM 

1984-1985 

Bennie R. Causey 

VIII RCSM 

1985-1987 

Howell W. Ramsey 

IX RCSM 

1987-1989 

Dennis E. Worley 

X RCSM 

1989-1992 

Tommy E. Nester 

XI RCSM 

1992 

Dennis E. Webster 

XII RCSM 

1992-1994 

Robert A. Murphy 

XIII RCSM 

1994-1998 

Timothy R. Steiner 

XIV RCSM 

1998-2001 

David A. Hartzell, Jr. 

XV RCSM 

2001-2002 

John R. Caldwell 

XVI RCSM 

2002-2005 

William J. Bums 

XVII RCSM 

2005- 


87 




Appendix G 


COMPLETE TEXT OF GENERAL SCOTT’S 
REMARKS TO THE REGIMENT AT CONTRERAS 

“When the Mounted Rifles reached Contreras on August 19 and 20, they began a battle 
which became a 17-minute dart from the rear and ended in the capture of Contreras and all it 
contained.... Sergeant Hiram Dryer and the other men - dirty, hungry, and tired - threw 
themselves on the ground to rest. Then General Scott rode up! Of course, every man in the 
Regiment, with cap off, was on his feet in a moment. Immediately, a shout was heard that 
would have delighted the heart of any true soldier, no matter what his rank. When quiet was 
restored, the general addressed the men: 

Brave Rifles, veterans - you have been baptized in fire and blood and come out 
steel. Where bloody work was to be done, “the Rifles” was the cry, and there they 
were. All speak of them in terms of praise and admiration. What can I say? What 
shall I say? Language cannot express my feelings of gratitude for your gallant con- 
duct in the terrible conflict of yesterday and this morning. But, my brave boys, in 
the course of one hour more you will be engaged in a more sanguinary engagement 
than the one you have just passed through, and I hope and trust that you will take the 
same noble stand you did yesterday and this morning. And now, men of the Rifle 
Regiment, you may rest assured that a grateful country will reward you for your gal- 
lant deeds through this campaign. Goodbye for the present, and God bless you all. 


Private Sam McCurdy 
Company D, Mounted Rifles 


89 






































































































































































































Appendix H 


UNITS ATTACHED TO TASK FORCE RIFLES 
DURING OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM I 


A Company, 122 Engineer Battalion 
A Company, 224th MI BN (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) 

A Company (detachment), 325th Military Intelligence Battalion 
A Company, 41 1th Civil Affairs Battalion 
B Company, 16th Signal Battalion, 3rd Signal Brigade 
B Company, 202nd Military Intelligence Battalion, 504th MI BDE 
B Company (detachment), 323rd Military Intelligence Battalion 
B Company, 325th Military Intelligence Battalion 
C Company, 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry 
C Company, 1 6th Signal Battalion, 3rd Signal Brigade 
C Company, 890th Engineer Battalion 
E Company (LRSD), 51st Infantry (ABN) 

F Company, 106th Aviation Battalion 

G Company, 285th Air Traffic Services 

HHC, 122 Engineer Battalion 

1st Platoon, B Company, 489th (M) Engineers 

1st Platoon, 1 51st Adjutant General Company (postal) 

1st Company, 1st Peacekeeping Battalion, Azerbaijani Special Brigade 
1st Battalion, 124th Infantry 

2nd PLT, D Company, 1st BN, 94th Field Artillery (Acquisition Radar) 

2nd Battalion, 5th Field Artillery 

3rd Bn, 187th Inf, 101st Airborne Division (AASLT) 

54th Engineer Battalion 

94th Military Police Brigade (detachment) 

141st Military Intelligence Battalion (detachment) 

142nd Combat Support Battalion 

165th Military Intelligence Battalion (detachment) 

223rd Military Intelligence Battalion (detachment) 

234th Field Artillery Detachment 

274th Quartermaster Company (Shower, Laundry, Clothing Repair) 
297th Quartermaster Company (Rough Terrain Cargo Handler) 

323nd Engineer Detachment (Fire Fighting) 

432nd Civil Affairs Battalion (detachment) 

502nd Personnel Service Detachment 

528th Quartermaster Company (Fuel System Supply Point) 

761st Ordnance Company (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) 

936th Forward Surgical Team 
974th Quartermaster Company 
1270th Tactical Pysops Detachment 
1308th Engineer Detachment (Topographic) 

2133rd Transportation Company 


91 



Appendix I 


TASK FORCE RIFLES PERSONNEL WHO DIED 
DURING OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM I 


PFC Vom J. Mack 
1 LT Michael Adams 
SGT Michael E. Dooley 
SSG Daniel Bader 
SPC Brian H. Penisten 
SSG Andrew R. Pokomy 
CPT Joshua T. Byers 
SPC Stephen M. Scott 
SGT Thomas F. Broomhead 
SSG William T Latham 
SSG Michael B. Quinn 
PFC Justin W. Pollard. 

PFC Jesse A. Givens 
SPC Darius T. Jennings 
PV2 Benjamin L. Freeman 
SSG Frederick L. Miller, Jr. 
PFC Armando Soriano 
CW2 Matthew Laskowski 
CW2 Stephen Wells 
SPC Michael A. Diraimondo 
SPC Christopher A. Golby 
CW2 Hans N. Gukeisen ' 
SGT Richard A. Carl 
CW2 Phillip A. Johnson 
CW2 Ian D. Manuel 
CW3 Brian K. Van Dusen 
SGT Ernest G. Bucklew 
MAJ Mathew E. Schram 
SPC Rian C. Ferguson 
SGT Taft V. Williams 
SPC Tamarra J. Ramos 
SSG Stephen A. Bertolino 
Spencer T. Karol 
SSG Paul A. Velazques 
SGT Joel Perez 
SSG Joe N. Wilson 
SGT Keelan L. Moss 


HHT, l/3d ACR 

A Troop, l/3d ACR 

B Troop, l/3d ACR 

ADA Btry, l/3d ACR 

ADA Btry, l/3d ACR 

ADA Btry, l/3d ACR 

HHT, 2/3d ACR 

HHT, 2/3 d ACR 

E Troop, 2/3 d ACR 

E Troop, 2/3 d ACR 

E Troop, 2/3 d ACR 

G Troop, 2/3d ACR 

H Company, 2/3d ACR 

How Btry, 2/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

How Btry, 3/3d ACR 

O Troop, 4/3 d ACR 

O Troop, 4/3 d ACR 

571st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

571st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

571st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

571st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

571st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

57 1 st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

571st Medical Co, 4/3d ACR 

HHT, Support Squadron/3d ACR 

HHT, Support Squadron/3d ACR 

S & T Troop, Support Squadron/3d ACR 

Maintenance Troop, 

Medical Troop, Support Squadron/3d ACR 
AVIM Troop, Support Squadron/3d ACR 
E Company (LRSD), 51st IN (ABN) 

SVC Battery, 2nd Battalion, 5th FA 
A Battery, 2nd BN, 5th Field Artillery 
A Battery, 2nd BN, 5th Field Artillery 
B Battery, 2nd BN, 5th Field Artillery 


93 


SPC Steven D. Conover 
SPC Rafael L. Navea 
SGT Ross A. Pennanen 
SGT Paul F. Fisher 
1LT Brian D. Slavenas 
CW4 Bruce A. Smith 
PFC Karina S. Lau 
PFC Anthony D. D’Agostino 
SSG Richard S. Eaton, Jr. 
SPC Francis M. Vega 
PFC James A. Chance III 
PFC David M. Kirchoff 
SPC Aaron J. Sissel 


C Battery, 2nd BN, 5th Field Artillery 
C Battery, 2nd BN, 5th Field Artillery 
C Battery, 2nd BN, 5th Field Artillery 
F Company, 106th Aviation Battalion 
F Company, 106th Aviation Battalion 
F Company, 106th Aviation Battalion 
B Company, 16th Signal Battalion 
D Company, 16th Signal Battalion 
B Company, 323rd MI BN, 205th MI BDE 
1st PLT, 151st AG Company (Postal) 

C Company, 890th Engineer Battalion 
2133rd Transportation Company 
2133rd Transportation Company 


94 


Appendix J 


UNIT ATTACHED TO OR THAT WORKED WITH 
THE 3d ARMORED CAVALRY REGIMENT 
DURING OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM 04-06 

2nd Battalion, 70th Armor, 1st Armored Division 

2nd Battalion, 14th Cavalry, 25th Infantry Division 

2nd Battalion, 325th Infantry (Airborne), 82nd Airborne Division 

AOB, 390, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group 

AOB, 530, 1st Battalion, 5th Special Forces Group 

80th Area Support Team 

98th Area Support Team 


95 
















































































































































































































































Appendix K 


PERSONNEL ASSIGNED OR ATTACHED TO THE 3d ACR 
WHO DIED DURING OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM 04-06 


PFC Joseph L. Knott 
MAJ Douglas A. LaBouff 
MAJ Michael R. Martinez 
2LT Charles R. Rubado 
SPC Joshua T. Brazee 
SGT Charles T. Wilkerson 
SGT Denis J. Gallardo 
CPL Joseph L. Martinez 
SGT Tyrone L. Chisholm 
SGT Jacob M. Simpson 
SPC Hoby F. Bradfield, Jr. 
PFC Robert W. Murry, Jr. 
PFC Ricky W. Rockholt, Jr. 
PFC Eric P. Woods 
SSG Brian L. Freeman 
CPL Jared W. Kubasak 
SFC Christopher W. Phelps 
CPL Robert C. Pope II 
PFC Mario A. Reyes 
1LT Justin S. Smith 
SPC Ernest W. Dallas, Jr. 
SSG Jason W. Montefering 
SGT Milton M. Monzon, Jr. 
PFC Ramon A. Villatoro, Jr. 
SPC Ronnie D. Williams 
SPC Eric J. Poelman 
SPC Brian S. Ulbrich 
SSG Justin L. Vasquez 
SFC Eric P. Pearrow 
SGT Timothy J. Sutton 
SSG Scottie L. Bright 
CPL Lyle J. Cambridge 
SPC Robert A. Swaney 
SSG Jeremy A. Brown 
1LT Joseph D. deMoors 
CW2 Dennis P. Hay 
SGT Timothy R. Boyce 


RHHT, 3d ACR 

RHHT, 3d ACR 

RHHT, 3d ACR 

C Troop, l/3d ACR 

How Btry, l/3d ACR 

ADA Btry, l/3d ACR 

E Troop, 2/3 d ACR 

E Troop, 2/3d ACR 

F Troop, 2/3 d ACR 

F Troop, 2/3 d ACR 

G Troop, 2/3d ACR 

G Troop, 2/3d ACR 

G Troop, 2/3d ACR 

G Troop, 2/3d ACR 

I Troop, 3/3d ACR 

I Troop, 3/3d ACR 

I Troop, 3/3d ACR 

I Troop, 3/3d ACR 

I Troop, 3/3d ACR 

I Troop, 3/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

K Troop, 3/3d ACR 

L Troop, 3/3d ACR 

L Troop, 3/3d ACR 

L Troop, 3/3d ACR 

M Company, 3/3d ACR 

M Company, 3/3d ACR 

How Btry, 3/3 ACR 

How Btry, 3/3 ACR 

How Btry, 3/3 ACR 

66th MI Company, 3/3d ACR 

66th MI Company, 3/3d ACR 

P Troop, 4/3 d ACR 

Maintenance Troop, Supt/3d ACR 


97 


CPL Jeffrey A. Williams 
SFC Brett E. Walden 
LTC Terrance K. Crowe 
SFC Robert V. Derenda 
SGT Ivan V. Alarcon 


Medical Troop, Supt/3d ACR 
1st Battalion, 5th Special Forces Group 
98th AST Military Transition Team 
80th AST Military Transition Team 
473rd Quartermaster Company 


98 


Appendix L 


CURRENT ORGANIZATION OF THE REGIMENT 
Configuration of Maneuver Squadrons 


Armored Cavalry Squadrons 

Headquarters and Headquarters Troop 

Cavalry Troop 

Cavalry Troop 

Cavalry Troop 

Tank Company 

Self-propelled Howitzer Battery 
Attached units* 

Aviation Squadron 
Headquarters and Headquarters Troop 
Attack Helicopter Troop 
Attack Helicopter Troop 
Attack Helicopter Troop 
Utility Helicopter Troop 
Intermediate Maintenance Troop 
Forward Support Troop 


3d Armored Cavalry (Brave Rifles ) Regiment 

Regimental Headquarters and Headquarters ( Remington ) Troop 


1 st ( Tiger ) Squadron 
Headquarters ( Roughrider ) Troop 
A {Apache) Troop 
B ( Bandit ) Troop 
C {Crazyhorse) Troop 
D ( Dragon ) Company 
Howitzer {King) Battery 

2nd {Saber) Squadron 
Headquarters {Rattler) Troop 
E {Eagle) Troop 
F {Fox) Troop 
G {Grim) Troop 
H {Heavy) Company 
Howitzer {Lion) Battery 
43rd Engineer {Sapper) Company* 

3rd ( Thunder ) Squadron 

Headquarters {Havoc) Troop 

I {Iron hawk) Troop 

K {Killer) Troop 

L {Lightning) Troop 

M {Maddog) Company 

Howitzer {Regulator) Battery 

66th {Ghostrider) Military Intelligence Company* 

4th {Longknife) Squadron 
Headquarters {Headhunter) Troop 
N {Nomad) Troop 
0 {Outlaw) Troop 
P {Pegasus) Troop 
R {Renegade) Troop 
S {Stetson) Troop 
T {Tomahawk) Troop 
AVIM {Air Raider) Troop 


99 


Support ( Muleskinner ) Squadron 

Headquarters and Headquarters ( Bullwhip ) Troop 
Supply and Transportation (. Packhorse ) Troop 
Medical ( Scalpel) Troop 
Maintenance (. Blacksmith ) Troop 
89th Chemical ( Chem Dawg ) Company 


Weapons Systems and Aircraft 


Ml A2SEP V2 Abrams main battle tank 
M3A2 Bradley cavalry fighting vehicle 
M109A6 Paladin 155mm self-propelled howitzer 
Ml 21 120mm mortar carrier 
M2A2 ODS Bradley fighting vehicle 
AH-64D Apache attack helicopter 
UH-60L Blackhawk utility helicopter 


41 per squadron (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 
41 per squadron (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 
6 per squadron (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 
6 per squadron (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 
X in Engineer Company 
8 per troop (N, O, P) 

1 0 per troop (S) 


Cavalry Missions 


Reconnaissance Operations Security Operations 

Zone Reconnaissance Screen 

Area Reconnaissance Guard 

Cover 


100 



UNIUERSITY OF FLORIDA 

Blood and Steel! The Historyi C 
D 101. 2=H 62/13 



3 ISLE EDD7E444 0 



AI-EE-YAH!